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Special Issue "Sustainable Built Environment and Urban Growth Management"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Wann-Ming Wey

Affiliation: Department of Real Estate and Built Environment, National Taipei University, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Website | E-Mail
Interests: urban built environment planning and design; sustainable transportation; smart city & big data; growth management with urban development

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in the link between sustainable built environment and the urban growth management in the field of urban studies. This interest is motivated by the possibility that urban development planning and design principles associated with the built environment can be used to manage individual activities and improve the quality of urban life. Sustainable built environment is relatively important to urban growth management that deals with environmental problems, housing issues, and community well-being. Nowadays the sustainable built environment planning in most cities has come to a turning point, as the traffic and population growing has become a serious concern and put a tremendous pressure on both environment and people in these cities. It is therefore important to find ways or new lifestyles such as compact city, transit-oriented development (TOD) formulations that are more flexible, inclusive, and sustainable. Furthermore, for the sustainable built environment and urban growth management, not only the growth management principles which include Smart Growth, Sustainable Growth, and Inclusive Growth should be taken into account, but the innovative/smart planning strategies such as mixed use design, green transport and new urbanism are utilized in planning sustainable build environment in order to prevent the urban sprawl development happened. On the other hand, a number of built environment attributes, measured both objectively and subjectively, were related to levels of physical activity, including walking, cycling, or driving etc. The priorities for built environment planning were arranged according to different weightings of them. Thus, the priorities in resource allocation were clearly defined, thereby preventing poor resource management and wastage which will be importantly addressed in this special issue.

From the viewpoint of the studies on the link between sustainable built environment and urban growth management and their interactions, this Special Issue welcomes theoretical and empirical studies on the following topics:

  • Sustainable built environment planning and design;
  • Sustainable growth management strategies;
  • Urban design and planning opportunities in high density living areas;
  • Mixing up residential and commercial uses in inner cities;
  • Growth management principles in smart city planning and designing;
  • Low-carbon community under smart growth;
  • Walkability/cycling and built environments;
  • Sustainable living environment;
  • Elderly-friendly living environment in the community;
  • Enhancing quality of life in community using environmental design;
  •  Resilience and vulnerability for urban development;
  •  Policy-making and sustainable government initiatives for future cities;
  • Big data and smart city;
  • Urban design innovation for smart cities;
  • Intelligent use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to sustainable built environment and smart cities research including data mining, cloud computing, Internet of things (IOTs), etc.
Prof. Dr. Wann-Ming Wey
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sustainable built environment
  • urban built environment planning and design
  • urban growth management
  • smart growth principles
  • sustainable growth
  • inclusive growth
  • urban design
  • new urbanism
  • compact city
  • transit-oriented development (TOD)
  • sustainable transportation
  • walkability and cycling
  • environment planning and evaluation
  • future/smart city
  • big/open data
  • innovative planning technology.

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Open AccessArticle Evaluating Social Performance of Construction Projects: An Empirical Study
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2329; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072329
Received: 4 June 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 July 2018 / Published: 5 July 2018
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Abstract
The concept of sustainable development is gaining increasing popularity in construction industry. Previous studies have prioritized on the sustainable performance of construction projects from perspectives of economy and environment, social performance of construction projects has not drawn much attention. Social performance of construction
[...] Read more.
The concept of sustainable development is gaining increasing popularity in construction industry. Previous studies have prioritized on the sustainable performance of construction projects from perspectives of economy and environment, social performance of construction projects has not drawn much attention. Social performance of construction projects refers to the extent which the projects meet the needs of current and future generations. Therefore, social performance of construction projects is critical for project success as well as social sustainability. However, a systematic framework for evaluating social performance of construction projects is absent. At the same time, existing methods are time-consuming and subject to certain degree of subjectivity. To overcome these limitations, the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) method is introduced in this paper to evaluate social performance of construction projects. A real-world hospital redevelopment project was employed as an empirical study to develop the systematic framework for social performance evaluation using FAHP method. By analyzing previous studies and the hospital redevelopment project, a systematic framework with 18 indicators of five dimensions (i.e., socio-economy development, socio-environment development, social flexibility, public service development, and environment and resource conservation) was developed. Social performance of two proposed schemes for hospital redevelopment project were evaluated using the FAHP approach. Results show Scheme 2 has a relative higher social performance sore than that of Scheme 1 and the hospital redevelopment project would improve socio-economy development, socio-environment development, social flexibility, and public service development, while it brings challenges to environment and resource conservation. More seriously, results indicate the hospital project may threaten healthcare and disease prevention of the local communities. Therefore, more measures should be taken to improve social performance of the hospital redevelopment project. The empirical study shows the proposed framework using FAHP method is viable for conducting social performance evaluation of construction projects, which could be helpful to improve social performance, reduce negative social impacts, and contribute to the social sustainability of construction projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Built Environment and Urban Growth Management)
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Open AccessArticle Measures and Steps for More Efficient Use of Buildings
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1949; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061949
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (781 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As urbanization continues and more people move into cities and urban areas, pressure on available land for new constructions will continue to increase. This situation constitutes an incentive to review the need for interior space and uses of existing buildings. A great deal
[...] Read more.
As urbanization continues and more people move into cities and urban areas, pressure on available land for new constructions will continue to increase. This situation constitutes an incentive to review the need for interior space and uses of existing buildings. A great deal can be gained from using existing buildings more efficiently instead of constructing new ones: Reduced resource usage during construction (investments, natural resources, and energy), operation, and maintenance; more activity per square meter of buildings creates a greater basis for public transport and other services; more intensive use of buildings creates a more vibrant city without building on virgin land. The aim of this paper is to initiate a discussion regarding how digitalization can affect the demand and supply of interior space in existing buildings and elaborate on how policy can support more resource-efficient uses of space. New activity-based resource measurements intended for use in buildings are proposed, and several principles that have the potential to decrease environmental impact through more efficient usage of space are outlined. Based on these ideas for encouraging the flexible use of building spaces that are facilitated by digitalization and the new measurement approaches, a four-step principle for construction is proposed: The first step is to reduce the demand for space, the second is to intensify usage of existing space, the third is to reconstruct and adapt existing buildings to current needs, and the fourth is to construct new buildings. Urging political, municipal, construction, and real-estate decision makers to contemplate this principle, particularly in view of the new conditions that digitalization entails, will lead to more sustainable construction and, in the long term, a sustainable built environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Built Environment and Urban Growth Management)
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Open AccessArticle Exploring Antecedents of Green Tourism Behaviors: A Case Study in Suburban Areas of Taipei, Taiwan
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1928; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061928
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
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Abstract
Understanding user behaviors is the foundation to support the design and development of a sustainably built environment. This exploratory study used a mixed method to explore people’s perception, motivation, intention, and behaviors of green tourism in Taiwan. The qualitative approach explored intrinsic and
[...] Read more.
Understanding user behaviors is the foundation to support the design and development of a sustainably built environment. This exploratory study used a mixed method to explore people’s perception, motivation, intention, and behaviors of green tourism in Taiwan. The qualitative approach explored intrinsic and extrinsic factors that could influence people’s intention to participate in green tourism. The quantitative approach provided evidence of influencing factors of green tourism. The findings suggested that variables, such as perception, attitudes, and self-efficacy, can indirectly influence green tourism behaviors through behavioral intention. This study suggests that government agencies should emphasize environmental education regarding the relationship between climate change and people’s life; therefore, people will increase their environmental awareness regarding the urgent conditions of the environment, in addition to supporting green tourism and being more responsible for their tourism behaviors. For cities intending to accommodate tourism or Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) that are interested in promoting green tourism, it is critical to incorporate relevant factors, such as destination services and educational elements, into the design and development principles to built environment that supports green tourism activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Built Environment and Urban Growth Management)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Land Use and Cover Changes in the Metropolitan Area of Tepic-Xalisco (1973–2015) through Landsat Images
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1860; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061860
Received: 21 April 2018 / Revised: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
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Abstract
Land use and cover changes (LUCC) have been identified as one of the main causes of biodiversity loss and deforestation in the world. Fundamentally, the urban land use has replaced agricultural and forest cover causing loss of environmental services. Monitoring and quantifying LUCC
[...] Read more.
Land use and cover changes (LUCC) have been identified as one of the main causes of biodiversity loss and deforestation in the world. Fundamentally, the urban land use has replaced agricultural and forest cover causing loss of environmental services. Monitoring and quantifying LUCC are essential to achieve a proper land management. The objective of this study was to analyze the LUCC in the metropolitan area of Tepic-Xalisco during the period 1973–2015. To find the best fit and obtain the different land use classes, supervised classification techniques were applied using Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC), Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The results were validated with control points (ground truth) through cross tabulation. The best results were obtained from the SVMs method with kappa indices above 85%. The transition analysis infers that urban land has grown significantly during 42 years, increasing 62 km2 and replacing agricultural areas at a rate of 1.48 km2/year. Forest loss of 5.78 km2 annually was also identified. The results show the different land uses distribution and the dynamics developed in the past. This information may be used to simulate future LUCC and modeling different scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Built Environment and Urban Growth Management)
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Open AccessArticle Morphology Dependent Assessment of Resilience for Urban Areas
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1800; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061800
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
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Abstract
The formation of new threats and the increasing complexity of urban built infrastructures underline the need for more robust and sustainable systems, which are able to cope with adverse events. Achieving sustainability requires the strengthening of resilience. Currently, a comprehensive approach for the
[...] Read more.
The formation of new threats and the increasing complexity of urban built infrastructures underline the need for more robust and sustainable systems, which are able to cope with adverse events. Achieving sustainability requires the strengthening of resilience. Currently, a comprehensive approach for the quantification of resilience of urban infrastructure is missing. Within this paper, a new generalized mathematical framework is presented. A clear definition of terms and their interaction builds the basis of this resilience assessment scheme. Classical risk-based as well as additional components are aligned along the timeline before, during and after disruptive events, to quantify the susceptibility, the vulnerability and the response and recovery behavior of complex systems for multiple threat scenarios. The approach allows the evaluation of complete urban surroundings and enables a quantitative comparison with other development plans or cities. A comprehensive resilience framework should cover at least preparation, prevention, protection, response and recovery. The presented approach determines respective indicators and provides decision support, which enhancement measures are more effective. Hence, the framework quantifies for instance, if it is better to avoid a hazardous event or to tolerate an event with an increased robustness. An application example is given to assess different urban forms, i.e., morphologies, with consideration of multiple adverse events, like terrorist attacks or earthquakes, and multiple buildings. Each urban object includes a certain number of attributes, like the object use, the construction type, the time-dependent number of persons and the value, to derive different performance targets. The assessment results in the identification of weak spots with respect to single resilience indicators. Based on the generalized mathematical formulation and suitable combination of indicators, this approach can quantify the resilience of urban morphologies, independent of possible single threat types and threat locations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Built Environment and Urban Growth Management)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Commercial Activities by Type on Social Bonding and Place Attachment in Neighborhoods
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1771; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061771
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 24 May 2018 / Published: 29 May 2018
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Abstract
Place attachment is an emotion that people experience in connection to a specific place and it is needed to maintain a sustainable neighborhood community. The emotion is affected by various factors, such as experience, function, environment, and satisfaction. This study focuses on commercial
[...] Read more.
Place attachment is an emotion that people experience in connection to a specific place and it is needed to maintain a sustainable neighborhood community. The emotion is affected by various factors, such as experience, function, environment, and satisfaction. This study focuses on commercial structures, which are one feature that characterizes the physical environments of neighborhoods. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of commercial activities in different commercial environments on social bonding and place attachment in residents. Two sites were selected for analysis due to their different commercial environments, and path analysis was used to examine the relationships among factors. The results indicate that commercial activities, which can vary according to commercial type, had both direct effects and indirect effects through social bonding between residents on place attachment. These results suggest that the commercial environment is an important element affecting the community and place attachment of residents in neighborhoods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Built Environment and Urban Growth Management)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Embodied Environmental Impacts of Korean Apartment Buildings Considering Major Building Materials
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1693; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061693
Received: 7 April 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
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Abstract
Because the reduction in environmental impacts (EIs) of buildings using life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been emphasized as a practical strategy for the sustainable development of the construction industry, studies are required to analyze not only the operational environmental impacts (OEIs) of buildings, but
[...] Read more.
Because the reduction in environmental impacts (EIs) of buildings using life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been emphasized as a practical strategy for the sustainable development of the construction industry, studies are required to analyze not only the operational environmental impacts (OEIs) of buildings, but also the embodied environmental impacts (EEIs) of building materials. This study aims to analyze the EEIs of Korean apartment buildings on the basis of major building materials as part of research with the goal of reducing the EIs of buildings. For this purpose, six types of building materials (ready-mixed concrete, reinforcement steel, concrete bricks, glass, insulation, and gypsum) for apartment buildings were selected as major building materials, and their inputs per unit area according to the structure types and plans of apartment buildings were derived by analyzing the design and bills of materials of 443 apartment buildings constructed in South Korea. In addition, a life-cycle scenario including the production, construction, maintenance, and end-of-life stage was constructed for each major building material. The EEIs of the apartment buildings were quantitatively assessed by applying the life-cycle inventory database (LCI DB) and the Korean life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method based on damage-oriented modeling (KOLID), and the results were analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Built Environment and Urban Growth Management)
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Open AccessArticle Building Ownership, Renovation Investments, and Energy Performance—A Study of Multi-Family Dwellings in Gothenburg
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1684; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051684
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
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Abstract
The European building stock was renewed at a rapid pace during the period 1950–1975. In many European countries, the building stock from this time needs to be renovated, and there are opportunities to introduce energy efficiency measures in the renovation process. Information availability
[...] Read more.
The European building stock was renewed at a rapid pace during the period 1950–1975. In many European countries, the building stock from this time needs to be renovated, and there are opportunities to introduce energy efficiency measures in the renovation process. Information availability and increasingly available analysis tools make it possible to assess the impact of policy and regulation. This article describes methods developed for analyzing investments in renovation and energy performance based on building ownership and inhabitant socio-economic information developed for Swedish authorities, to be used for the Swedish national renovations strategy in 2019. This was done by analyzing measured energy usage and renovation investments made during the last 30 years, coupled with building specific official information of buildings and resident area characteristics, for multi-family dwellings in Gothenburg (N = 6319). The statistical analyses show that more costly renovations lead to decreasing energy usage for heating, but buildings that have been renovated during the last decades have a higher energy usage when accounting for current heating system, ownership, and resident socio-economic background. It is appropriate to include an affordability aspect in larger renovation projects since economically disadvantaged groups are over-represented in buildings with poorer energy performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Built Environment and Urban Growth Management)
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Open AccessArticle How does the Ecological Well-Being of Urban and Rural Residents Change with Rural-Urban Land Conversion? The Case of Hubei, China
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020527
Received: 4 January 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1584 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human well-being can be affected by the loss of ecosystem services from conversion of agricultural lands. Uncovering negative ecological consequences of rural-urban conversion is important for regulating rural-urban land conversion. This paper evaluates the impacts of rural-urban land conversion on the ecological well-being
[...] Read more.
Human well-being can be affected by the loss of ecosystem services from conversion of agricultural lands. Uncovering negative ecological consequences of rural-urban conversion is important for regulating rural-urban land conversion. This paper evaluates the impacts of rural-urban land conversion on the ecological well-being of different interest groups in China and makes policy recommendations for mitigating them. This research empirically quantifies and compares changes in the ecological well-being of rural and urban residents due to rural-urban land conversion and examines how transformation factors affect such changes in Hubei, China using the Fuzzy Synthetic Evaluation Model. Results show that compared with urban residents, rural resident ecological well-being level declines more obviously with rural-urban land conversion. Two socio-demographic characteristics, age and education level, as well as zoning characteristics, influence both rural and urban resident well-being changes. It is argued that there is a need for quantitative measurement of agricultural ecosystem services changes and that the construction of ecological compensation policies in areas undergoing rural-urban land conversion is essential for regulating rural-urban land conversion and for maintaining resident ecological well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Built Environment and Urban Growth Management)
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Open AccessArticle Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Generated by Building and Traffic in Taichung City
Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010112
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 25 December 2017 / Accepted: 27 December 2017 / Published: 5 January 2018
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Abstract
The emissions of carbon dioxide generated by urban traffic is generally reflected by urban size. In order to discuss the traffic volume generated in developed buildings and road crossings in a single urban block, with the metropolitan area in Taichung, Taiwan as an
[...] Read more.
The emissions of carbon dioxide generated by urban traffic is generally reflected by urban size. In order to discuss the traffic volume generated in developed buildings and road crossings in a single urban block, with the metropolitan area in Taichung, Taiwan as an example, this study calculates the mutual relationship between the carbon dioxide generated by the traffic volume and building development scale, in order to research energy consumption and relevance. In this research, the entire-day traffic volume of an important road crossing is subject to statistical analysis to obtain the prediction formula of total passenger car units in the main road crossing within 24 h. Then, the total CO2 emissions generated by the traffic volume in the entire year is calculated according to the investigation data of peak traffic hours within 16 blocks and the influential factors of the development scale of 95 buildings are counted. Finally, this research found that there is a passenger car unit of 4.72 generated in each square meter of land in the urban block every day, 0.99 in each square meter of floor area in the building and the average annual total CO2 emissions of each passenger car unit is 41.4 kgCO2/yr. In addition, the basic information of an integrated road system and traffic volume is used to present a readable urban traffic hot map, which can calculate a distribution map of passenger car units within one day in Taichung. This research unit can be used to forecast the development scale of various buildings in future urban blocks, in order to provide an effective approach to estimate the carbon dioxide generated by the traffic volume. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Built Environment and Urban Growth Management)
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Open AccessArticle An Integrated Carbon Policy-Based Interactive Strategy for Carbon Reduction and Economic Development in a Construction Material Supply Chain
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2107; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9112107
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 11 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1024 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon emissions from the construction material industry have become of increasing concern due to increasingly urbanization and extensive infrastructure. Faced with serious atmospheric deterioration, governments have been seeking to reduce carbon emissions, with carbon trading and carbon taxes being considered the most effective
[...] Read more.
Carbon emissions from the construction material industry have become of increasing concern due to increasingly urbanization and extensive infrastructure. Faced with serious atmospheric deterioration, governments have been seeking to reduce carbon emissions, with carbon trading and carbon taxes being considered the most effective regulatory policies. Over time, there has been a global consensus that integrated carbon trading/carbon tax policies are more effective in reducing carbon emissions. However, in an integrated carbon reduction policy framework, balancing the relationship between emission reductions and low-carbon benefits has been found to be a critical issue for governments and enterprises in both theoretical research and carbon emission reduction practices. As few papers have sought to address these issues, this paper seeks to reach a trade-off between economic development and environmental protection involving various stakeholders: regional governments which aim to maximize social benefits, and producers who seek economic profit maximization. An iterative interactive algorithmic method with fuzzy random variables (FRVs) is proposed to determine the satisfactory equilibrium between these decision-makers. This methodology is then applied to a real-world case to demonstrate its practicality and efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Built Environment and Urban Growth Management)
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Open AccessConcept Paper Environmental Activation of Inner Space Components in Sustainable Interior Design
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1945; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061945
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 3 June 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
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Abstract
Implementation of environmental responsibility issues into the interior design methodology considers many aspects of the design process, but analyzes them separately. These include building materials’ and products’ specifications based on the assessment of their parameters impact on the users of indoor environments, or
[...] Read more.
Implementation of environmental responsibility issues into the interior design methodology considers many aspects of the design process, but analyzes them separately. These include building materials’ and products’ specifications based on the assessment of their parameters impact on the users of indoor environments, or resource management within an ecological efficiency context. This concept paper concentrates on the analysis of an environmental activation of inner space components, identified by the author as the holistic and systemic design model, which is to empower the foundation of a contemporary sustainable interior design model. The proposed design scheme is supposed to assure the environmental effectiveness of interiors and their structure, as well as complementing functional components. The contributions of interiors completed in accordance with this concept can refer to the enhancement of the performance of building mechanical systems and the improvement in the indoor environment quality parameters. They can be achieved with the appropriate environmental activation-oriented structural, technical, and material solutions, applied to the selected inner space components. The theoretical scheme presented should become the basis for further investigations and studies to establish the comprehensive methodology design framework assuring the integrative role of interior design in the creation of a sustainable near environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Built Environment and Urban Growth Management)
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