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Special Issue "Renewable Energy Applications and Energy Saving in Buildings"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Lin Lu

Facutly of Constrcution and Environment, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
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Interests: renewable energy applications and technology development, green building nanomaterial development, and fluid mechanics and heat/mass transfer related to building studies
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jinqing Peng

Hunan University, Changsha, China
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Interests: renewable energy applications, building facade and building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV)
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Fu Xiao

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
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Interests: building energy efficiency, building life-cycle commissioning, optimization and diagnosis, novel and energy efficient refrigeration and air conditioning technologies

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The rapid growth of world energy use has already caused energy shortage problems. The exhaustion of fossil fuel energy resources and the severe environmental impacts of fossil fuels have seriously hindered sustainable global development. Also, the contribution of energy consumption from buildings, both residential and commercial, has steadily increased and now comprises approximately 30–40% of the overall energy use in developed countries. For developing countries, population growth and urbanization, increasing demand for building services and comfort levels, together with the increase in time spent within buildings assure that the sharp, rising trend in building energy use will continue for a long time.

Usually, two methods are utilized for reducing building energy use, viz., the integration of renewable energy technologies with buildings and the development of advanced energy saving technologies. Thus, to further spread the technologies and methods related to building energy saving, a Special Issue entitled “Renewable Energy Applications and Energy Saving in Buildings” was proposed for the international journal of “Sustainability”, which is an SSCI and SCI Expanded journal (2013 IF=1.077).

This Special Issue will mainly encompass original research and studies related to the above two topics. Although the following list is not exhaustive, issues of particular interest include solar energy, building-integrated photovoltaic/thermal systems, wind power, ground-source heat pumps, biomass energy, energy storage technologies, green buildings and their evaluation, distributed energy systems, energy efficiency technologies in buildings, district cooling/heating systems, combined cooling, heating, and power systems, new materials in buildings, etc. Papers selected for this Special Issue will have been subject to a rigorous peer review procedure. The journal aims to rapidly and widely spread research results, developments, and applications.

We invite you to submit your original work to this Special Issue, and look forward to receiving your outstanding research outputs!

Best Regards!

Dr. Lin Lu
Dr. Jinqing Peng
Dr. Fu Xiao
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Solar energy
  • Building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) systems
  • Wind power
  • Ground source heat pump
  • Biomass energy
  • Green buildings and evaluation
  • Distributed energy systems
  • District heating and CCHP
  • Energy storage technologies
  • Energy efficiency in buildings
  • New materials in buildings

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Experimentally Investigating the Effect of Temperature Differences in the Particle Deposition Process on Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Modules
Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1091; doi:10.3390/su8111091
Received: 23 May 2016 / Revised: 9 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 October 2016 / Published: 25 October 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1653 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reports an experimental investigation of the dust particle deposition process on solar photovoltaic (PV) modules with different surface temperatures by a heating plate to illustrate the effect of the temperature difference (thermophoresis) between the module surface and the surrounding air on
[...] Read more.
This paper reports an experimental investigation of the dust particle deposition process on solar photovoltaic (PV) modules with different surface temperatures by a heating plate to illustrate the effect of the temperature difference (thermophoresis) between the module surface and the surrounding air on the dust accumulation process under different operating temperatures. In general, if the temperature of PV modules is increased, the energy conversion efficiency of the modules is decreased. However, in this study, it is firstly found that higher PV module surface temperature differences result in a higher energy output compared with those modules with lower temperature differences because of a reduced accumulation of dust particles. The measured deposition densities of dust particles were found to range from 0.54 g/m2 to 0.85 g/m2 under the range of experimental conditions and the output power ratios were found to increase from 0.861 to 0.965 with the increase in the temperature difference from 0 to 50 °C. The PV module with a higher temperature difference experiences a lower dust density because of the effect of the thermophoresis force arising from the temperature gradient between the module surface and its surrounding air. In addition, dust particles have a significant impact on the short circuit current, as well as the output power. However, the influence of particles on open circuit voltage can be negligible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Applications and Energy Saving in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle Simple Tool to Evaluate Airtightness in Chilean Homes
Sustainability 2016, 8(10), 1000; doi:10.3390/su8101000
Received: 16 June 2016 / Revised: 25 August 2016 / Accepted: 29 August 2016 / Published: 10 October 2016
PDF Full-text (2163 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Given the high impact that air leaks have on buildings’ energy expenses, most developed countries have set out norms which regulate their presence in homes. Chile will soon begin this process; however, the airtightness revision strategy in envelopes has not been resolved as
[...] Read more.
Given the high impact that air leaks have on buildings’ energy expenses, most developed countries have set out norms which regulate their presence in homes. Chile will soon begin this process; however, the airtightness revision strategy in envelopes has not been resolved as of yet. This article presents a tool to Assess Airtightness in Design, EHeD. The software will allow predicting the performance of homes under the regulations which will be set out, aiding designers, builders or owners to make decisions when making changes to improve airtightness. EHeD has been validated through pressurization tests in diverse homes across the country, with results that are in line with expectations, thus validating its calculation model. The methodology considers three stages: determining the main factors that have an impact on the airtightness in Chilean homes, preparing an airtightness database for each component (wall, windows and doors) and preparing a calculation model that is integrated in an IT interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Applications and Energy Saving in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle A Study of Incentive Policies for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Technology in Hong Kong
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 769; doi:10.3390/su8080769
Received: 24 May 2016 / Revised: 29 July 2016 / Accepted: 2 August 2016 / Published: 8 August 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1976 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Installing sustainable and renewable energy systems is a promising way of relieving Hong Kong’s dependence on imported fossil fuels. Solar photovoltaic (PV) technology is a perfect solution for Hong Kong as it fits the economic and geographic situation. Through a review of the
[...] Read more.
Installing sustainable and renewable energy systems is a promising way of relieving Hong Kong’s dependence on imported fossil fuels. Solar photovoltaic (PV) technology is a perfect solution for Hong Kong as it fits the economic and geographic situation. Through a review of the PV development history of five leading PV countries, Germany, Japan, Italy, Mainland China, and the USA, this paper serves as a useful policy toolbox to aid PV development. Based on the forerunners’ successful PV industry experiences and Hong Kong’s unique local situations, a series of incentive strategies were proposed for Hong Kong to help promote the utilization of solar PV systems by reducing the initial investment and providing reasonable subsidies at the initial stages and during the operation period of the PV systems. These results could be a practical reference for promoting renewable energy applications for local policy-makers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Applications and Energy Saving in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle Investigations on the Energy Efficiency of Stratified Air Distribution Systems with Different Diffuser Layouts
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 732; doi:10.3390/su8080732
Received: 27 May 2016 / Revised: 25 July 2016 / Accepted: 27 July 2016 / Published: 30 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5228 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper investigated the influence of diffuser layouts on the energy performance of stratified air distribution systems (STRAD). The energy saving potentials of STRAD systems are theoretically analyzed. The cooling coil load of a STRAD system is proportion to the return air temperature,
[...] Read more.
This paper investigated the influence of diffuser layouts on the energy performance of stratified air distribution systems (STRAD). The energy saving potentials of STRAD systems are theoretically analyzed. The cooling coil load of a STRAD system is proportion to the return air temperature, while inversely proportional to the exhaust air temperature. Based on that, numerical studies are conducted for the applications of STRAD systems in three typical building space types. Two evaluation indices are developed to assess the energy performance of STRAD systems. The simulation results demonstrated that further energy saving could be achieved by keeping the exhaust grille at ceiling level and decreasing the height of return grille. Therefore, in order to optimize the energy saving capacity of STRAD systems, the return grille is recommended to be located as low as possible, whilst paying special attention on the “short-circuit” of cold supply air. Furthermore, when the STRAD system is applied in large space buildings with a big horizontal span, supply diffusers should be distributed surrounding the occupied zone as uniformly as possible, while avoiding installing return diffusers at exterior walls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Applications and Energy Saving in Buildings)
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Open AccessCommunication Determination of the Optimal Tilt Angle of Solar Collectors for Different Climates of China
Sustainability 2016, 8(7), 654; doi:10.3390/su8070654
Received: 18 May 2016 / Revised: 4 July 2016 / Accepted: 5 July 2016 / Published: 11 July 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1092 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The tilt angle with the horizon (with respect to the ground) of the solar energy system affects the amount of solar radiation received. This paper suggests a simple and universal method to obtain the optimum tilt angles by estimating the monthly mean daily
[...] Read more.
The tilt angle with the horizon (with respect to the ground) of the solar energy system affects the amount of solar radiation received. This paper suggests a simple and universal method to obtain the optimum tilt angles by estimating the monthly mean daily global solar radiation on tilted surfaces facing directly towards the equator, which is based on monthly average daily global solar radiation data produced from Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) data. The monthly, seasonal, and yearly optimum tilt angles for photovoltaic panels are calculated at six stations of different climatic types (Tropical Zone (TZ), Subtropical Zone (SZ), Warm Temperate Zone (WTZ), Mid Temperate Zone (MTZ), Cold Temperate Zone (CTZ) and Tibetan Plateau Zone (TPZ)). The results indicate that changing the monthly, seasonal, and yearly optimum tilt angles causes a significant yearly gain in the solar radiation for the region. In addition, general correlations are generated to estimate the optimum tilt angle of solar collectors at six typical climatic stations of China. The performances of the proposed models are compared using statistical error tests such as the mean absolute bias error (MABE), the root mean square error (RMSE) and the correlation coefficients (R). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Applications and Energy Saving in Buildings)
Open AccessArticle The Development and Full-Scale Experimental Validation of an Optimal Water Treatment Solution in Improving Chiller Performances
Sustainability 2016, 8(7), 615; doi:10.3390/su8070615
Received: 7 April 2016 / Revised: 16 June 2016 / Accepted: 23 June 2016 / Published: 30 June 2016
PDF Full-text (8466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An optimal solution, in combining physical and chemical water treatment methods, has been developed. This method uses a high voltage capacitance based (HVCB) electrodes, coupled with biocides to form a sustainable solution in improving chiller plant performances. In this study, the industrial full-scale
[...] Read more.
An optimal solution, in combining physical and chemical water treatment methods, has been developed. This method uses a high voltage capacitance based (HVCB) electrodes, coupled with biocides to form a sustainable solution in improving chiller plant performances. In this study, the industrial full-scale tests, instead of laboratory tests, have been conducted on chiller plants at the size of 5000 RT to 10,000 RT cooling capacities under commercial operation for more than two years. The experimental results indicated that the condenser approach temperatures can be maintained at below 1 °C for over two years. It has been validated that the coefficient of performance (COP) of a chiller can be improved by over 5% by implementing this solution. Every 1 °C reduction in condenser approach temperature can yield approximately 3% increase on chiller COP, which warrants its future application potential in the HVAC industry, where Ta can degrade by 1 °C every three to six months. The solution developed in this study could also reduce chemical dosages and conserve makeup water substantially and is more environment friendly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Applications and Energy Saving in Buildings)
Open AccessArticle The Effects of Roof and Wall Insulation on the Energy Costs of Low Income Housing in Mexico
Sustainability 2016, 8(7), 590; doi:10.3390/su8070590
Received: 6 April 2016 / Revised: 9 June 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 25 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4486 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Environmental conditions, such as air temperature and solar radiation, have a complex relationship with the energy requirements for heating and cooling of residential buildings. In this work, a comparative analysis of the insulation methods most commonly applied to low income single-family houses in
[...] Read more.
Environmental conditions, such as air temperature and solar radiation, have a complex relationship with the energy requirements for heating and cooling of residential buildings. In this work, a comparative analysis of the insulation methods most commonly applied to low income single-family houses in Mexico is presented, in order to find the most energy-efficient combinations of methods for the various climates in this country. A common kind of building, small houses built with hollow cinder block walls and concrete slab roofs, was analyzed considering three insulation scenarios: walls only, roof only and both. We used dynamic simulation to evaluate energy consumption under the climate conditions found in several Mexican cities. From the energy consumption data and the cost of electricity in Mexico, we calculated net annual energy costs, including both annual energy savings and the annualized cost of the initial investment in better insulation. Results of this analysis show that insulating both roof and walls is most effective in cities with cold winters; insulating just the roof is best for temperate climates; and insulating walls (combined with high-albedo roofs) is most effective for cities with year-long warm weather. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Applications and Energy Saving in Buildings)
Open AccessArticle The Multiscale Fluctuations of the Correlation between Oil Price and Wind Energy Stock
Sustainability 2016, 8(6), 534; doi:10.3390/su8060534
Received: 27 November 2015 / Revised: 26 April 2016 / Accepted: 26 May 2016 / Published: 4 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2856 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wind energy is considered a clear and sustainable substitution for fossil fuel, and the stock index of the wind energy industry is closely related to the oil price fluctuation. Their relationship is characterized by multiscale and time-varying features based on a variety of
[...] Read more.
Wind energy is considered a clear and sustainable substitution for fossil fuel, and the stock index of the wind energy industry is closely related to the oil price fluctuation. Their relationship is characterized by multiscale and time-varying features based on a variety of stakeholders who have different objectives within various time horizons, which makes it difficult to identify the factor in which time scale could be the most influential one in the market. Aiming to explore the correlation between oil price and the wind energy stock index from the time–frequency domain in a dynamic perspective, we propose an algorithm combining the wavelet transform, complex network, and gray correlation analyses and choose the Brent oil price and the international securities exchange (ISE) global wind energy index from January 2006 to October 2015 in daily frequency as data sample. First, we define the multiscale conformation by a set of fluctuation information with different time horizons to represent the fluctuation status of the correlation of the oil–wind nexus rather than by a single original correlation value. Then, we transform the multiscale conformation evolution into a network model, and only 270 multiscale conformations and 710 transmissions could characterize 2451 data points. We find that only 30% of conformations and transmissions work as a backbone of the entire correlation series; through these major conformations, we identify that the main factor that could influence the oil–wind nexus are long-term components, such as policies, the status of the global economy and demand–supply issues. In addition, there is a clustering effect and transmissions among conformations that mainly happen inside clusters and rarely among clusters, which means the interaction of the oil–wind nexus is stable over a short period of time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Applications and Energy Saving in Buildings)
Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Effect of the CaCl2 Mass Fraction on the Efficiency of a Heat Pump Integrated Heat-Source Tower Using an Artificial Neural Network Model
Sustainability 2016, 8(5), 410; doi:10.3390/su8050410
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 21 April 2016 / Accepted: 22 April 2016 / Published: 26 April 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An existing idle cooling tower can be reversibly used as a heat-source tower (HST) to drive a heat pump (HP) in cold seasons, with calcium chloride (CaCl2) aqueous solution commonly selected as the secondary working fluid in an indirect system due
[...] Read more.
An existing idle cooling tower can be reversibly used as a heat-source tower (HST) to drive a heat pump (HP) in cold seasons, with calcium chloride (CaCl2) aqueous solution commonly selected as the secondary working fluid in an indirect system due to its good thermo-physical properties. This study analyzed the effect of CaCl2 mass fraction on the effectiveness (ε) of a closed HST and the coefficient of performance (COP) of a HP heating system using an artificial neural network (ANN) technique. CaCl2 aqueous solutions with five different mass fractions, viz. 3%, 9%, 15%, 21%, and 27%, were chosen as the secondary working fluids for the HSTHP heating system. In order to collect enough measured data, extensive field tests were conducted on an experimental test rig in Changsha, China which experiences hot summer and cold winter weather. After back-propagation (BP) training, the three-layer (4-9-2) ANN model with a tangent sigmoid transfer function at the hidden layer and a linear transfer function at the output layer was developed for predicting the tower effectiveness and the COP of the HP under different inlet air dry-/wet-bulb temperatures, hot water inlet temperatures and CaCl2 mass fractions. The correlation coefficient (R), mean relative error (MRE) and root mean squared error (RMSE) were adopted to evaluate the prediction accuracy of the ANN model. The results showed that the R, MRE, and RMSE between the training values and the experimental values of ε (COP) were 0.995 (0.996), 2.09% (1.89%), and 0.005 (0.060), respectively, which indicated that the ANN model was reliable and robust in predicting the performance of the HP. The findings of this paper indicated that in order to guarantee normal operation of the system, the freezing point temperature of the CaCl2 aqueous solution should be sufficiently (3–5 K) below its lowest operating temperature or lower than the normal operating temperature by about 10 K. The tower effectiveness increased with increasing CaCl2 mass fraction from 0 to 27%, while the COP of the HP decreased. A tradeoff between the tower effectiveness and the COP of the HP should be considered to further determine the suitable mass fraction of CaCl2 aqueous solution for the HSTHP heating system. The outputs of this study are expected to provide guidelines for selecting brine with an appropriate mass fraction for a closed HSTHP heating system for actual applications, which would be a reasonable solution to improve the system performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Applications and Energy Saving in Buildings)
Open AccessArticle The Impact of Countries’ Roles on the International Photovoltaic Trade Pattern: The Complex Networks Analysis
Sustainability 2016, 8(4), 313; doi:10.3390/su8040313
Received: 26 November 2015 / Revised: 22 March 2016 / Accepted: 24 March 2016 / Published: 30 March 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1570 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The expansion of the international PV trade encourages governments to focus on their trade roles in this market, which has increasing impact on their future development of sustainable energy. Thus, an exploration of top traders and their influence on global PV trade pattern
[...] Read more.
The expansion of the international PV trade encourages governments to focus on their trade roles in this market, which has increasing impact on their future development of sustainable energy. Thus, an exploration of top traders and their influence on global PV trade pattern is essential as governments seek to develop strategies to improve their global PV market’s discourse power. This study introduces the complex network theory to examine top traders whose default would lead to the collapse of trade pattern and their impactful ways. Moreover, the potential structural reason for top traders’ influence on trade is explored via link prediction. We find that a group of European countries account for 80% of global importation and are the most influential traders and bridges; a group of Asian countries are among the top exporters with half of the global share; and European countries’ high influence is due to their large number of trade partners instead of their trade volume. Above all, a high number of trade partners is more important than trade volume for countries seeking to be top traders. Finally, we discuss these results given the recent promising development of international PV trade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Applications and Energy Saving in Buildings)
Open AccessArticle Can Clean Energy Policy Improve the Quality of Alpine Grassland Ecosystem? A Scenario Analysis to Influence the Energy Changes in the Three-River Headwater Region, China
Sustainability 2016, 8(3), 231; doi:10.3390/su8030231
Received: 17 December 2015 / Revised: 23 February 2016 / Accepted: 26 February 2016 / Published: 3 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1275 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In past decades, ecological services and functions of alpine grassland in the Three-River Headwater Region (TRHR), Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, have been severely degraded due to overgrazing and overuse of yak dung as a fuel. Therefore, the eco-migration project has been implemented by the national
[...] Read more.
In past decades, ecological services and functions of alpine grassland in the Three-River Headwater Region (TRHR), Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, have been severely degraded due to overgrazing and overuse of yak dung as a fuel. Therefore, the eco-migration project has been implemented by the national government for improving eco-environmental quality in this region. This paper examines the carbon cycle change from clean energy use of households and assesses its influence on the local grassland ecosystem. Based on the data of household fuels from questionnaire surveys and local statistical yearbooks, we have calculated carbon emission and the ecological benefits by using clean energies. The results showed that total carbon in the process from Net Primary Productivity (NPP) of the ecosystem to dung fuel decreases sharply, and carbon emission from dung is approximate 6% of ecosystem NPP. Reducing the use of yak dung as a fuel has no significant influence on carbon emission, but improves the ecological benefits of the grassland ecosystem, because it is a very important part of the ecosystem carbon cycle. With the most abundant solar energy resources in China, the region should make full use of its advantage for improving ecosystem service values of alpine grassland by making more dung returns to grassland. In conclusion, a clean energy policy (CEP) can effectively improve the ecological services and functions of alpine grassland in the TRHR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Applications and Energy Saving in Buildings)
Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Influence of the Stability Factors of PV/T-SAHP on the Performance of the System
Sustainability 2016, 8(1), 22; doi:10.3390/su8010022
Received: 17 October 2015 / Revised: 15 December 2015 / Accepted: 23 December 2015 / Published: 26 December 2015
PDF Full-text (4145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The integrated photovoltaic/thermal collector (PV/T) with solar assisted heat pump (SAHP) often operates under an undesigned condition. Against the backdrop of heat pump system oscillation resulting from the mismatching between collectors area and compressor capacity, this work explores the dynamic performance of heat
[...] Read more.
The integrated photovoltaic/thermal collector (PV/T) with solar assisted heat pump (SAHP) often operates under an undesigned condition. Against the backdrop of heat pump system oscillation resulting from the mismatching between collectors area and compressor capacity, this work explores the dynamic performance of heat pump system at a fixed compressor frequency when the condensing water temperature and electronic expansion valve (EEV) opening are variable or invariable. We also consider why the system is unstable and propose the theory of SAHP system stability. Also, a preliminary performance analysis is made on SAHP system that is respectively influenced by an inverter compressor and EEV. The MSS(Minimum Stable Signal) line theory is proposed to account for system unstabilty in the research of the match between EEV and evaporators, that is to say, the critical problem of keep the system stability is to find out how evaporators superheat under the circumstance of specified loads and its corresponding EEV opening, in other words, to find the MSS line. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Applications and Energy Saving in Buildings)
Open AccessArticle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Assessment of Conventional and Solar Assisted Air Conditioning Systems
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 14710-14728; doi:10.3390/su71114710
Received: 15 August 2015 / Revised: 23 October 2015 / Accepted: 27 October 2015 / Published: 3 November 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy consumption in the buildings is responsible for 26% of Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions where cooling typically accounts for over 50% of the total building energy use. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for reducing the cooling systems’ environmental
[...] Read more.
Energy consumption in the buildings is responsible for 26% of Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions where cooling typically accounts for over 50% of the total building energy use. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for reducing the cooling systems’ environmental footprint with applications of alternative renewable energy source. Three types of cooling systems, water cooled, air cooled and a hybrid solar-based air-conditioning system, with a total of six scenarios were designed in this work. The scenarios accounted for the types of power supply to the air-conditioning systems with electricity from the grid and with a solar power from highly integrated building photovoltaics (BIPV). Within and between these scenarios, systems’ energy performances were compared based on energy modelling while the harvesting potential of the renewable energy source was further predicted based on building’s detailed geometrical model. The results showed that renewable energy obtained via BIPV scenario could cover building’s annual electricity consumption for cooling and reduce 140 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions each year. The hybrid solar air-conditioning system has higher energy efficiency than the air cooled chiller system but lower than the water cooled system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Applications and Energy Saving in Buildings)

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