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Sustainability 2016, 8(7), 654; doi:10.3390/su8070654

Determination of the Optimal Tilt Angle of Solar Collectors for Different Climates of China

College of Energy and Electrical Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 211100, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc A. Rosen
Received: 18 May 2016 / Revised: 4 July 2016 / Accepted: 5 July 2016 / Published: 11 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Applications and Energy Saving in Buildings)
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Abstract

The tilt angle with the horizon (with respect to the ground) of the solar energy system affects the amount of solar radiation received. This paper suggests a simple and universal method to obtain the optimum tilt angles by estimating the monthly mean daily global solar radiation on tilted surfaces facing directly towards the equator, which is based on monthly average daily global solar radiation data produced from Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) data. The monthly, seasonal, and yearly optimum tilt angles for photovoltaic panels are calculated at six stations of different climatic types (Tropical Zone (TZ), Subtropical Zone (SZ), Warm Temperate Zone (WTZ), Mid Temperate Zone (MTZ), Cold Temperate Zone (CTZ) and Tibetan Plateau Zone (TPZ)). The results indicate that changing the monthly, seasonal, and yearly optimum tilt angles causes a significant yearly gain in the solar radiation for the region. In addition, general correlations are generated to estimate the optimum tilt angle of solar collectors at six typical climatic stations of China. The performances of the proposed models are compared using statistical error tests such as the mean absolute bias error (MABE), the root mean square error (RMSE) and the correlation coefficients (R). View Full-Text
Keywords: optimum tilt angle; Typical Meteorological Year; solar radiation; solar energy optimum tilt angle; Typical Meteorological Year; solar radiation; solar energy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zang, H.; Guo, M.; Wei, Z.; Sun, G. Determination of the Optimal Tilt Angle of Solar Collectors for Different Climates of China. Sustainability 2016, 8, 654.

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