Sensors 2012, 12(9), 11754-11781; doi:10.3390/s120911754
Article

Formal Specification and Validation of a Hybrid Connectivity Restoration Algorithm for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

1 Deanship of E-Transactions and Communication, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 2 Department of Computer Science, King Faisal University, Hofuf, Saudi Arabia
The preliminary work of this paper was presented in the 8th IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing, Hong Kong, China, 11–13 December 2010.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 June 2012; in revised form: 27 July 2012 / Accepted: 13 August 2012 / Published: 29 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
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Abstract: Maintaining inter-actor connectivity is extremely crucial in mission-critical applications of Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs), as actors have to quickly plan optimal coordinated responses to detected events. Failure of a critical actor partitions the inter-actor network into disjoint segments besides leaving a coverage hole, and thus hinders the network operation. This paper presents a Partitioning detection and Connectivity Restoration (PCR) algorithm to tolerate critical actor failure. As part of pre-failure planning, PCR determines critical/non-critical actors based on localized information and designates each critical node with an appropriate backup (preferably non-critical). The pre-designated backup detects the failure of its primary actor and initiates a post-failure recovery process that may involve coordinated multi-actor relocation. To prove the correctness, we construct a formal specification of PCR using Z notation. We model WSAN topology as a dynamic graph and transform PCR to corresponding formal specification using Z notation. Formal specification is analyzed and validated using the Z Eves tool. Moreover, we simulate the specification to quantitatively analyze the efficiency of PCR. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of PCR and the results shown that it outperforms contemporary schemes found in the literature.
Keywords: WSANs; connectivity restoration; controlled and coordinated actor relocation; formal specification; Z notation

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MDPI and ACS Style

Imran, M.; Zafar, N.A. Formal Specification and Validation of a Hybrid Connectivity Restoration Algorithm for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks. Sensors 2012, 12, 11754-11781.

AMA Style

Imran M, Zafar NA. Formal Specification and Validation of a Hybrid Connectivity Restoration Algorithm for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks. Sensors. 2012; 12(9):11754-11781.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Imran, Muhammad; Zafar, Nazir Ahmad. 2012. "Formal Specification and Validation of a Hybrid Connectivity Restoration Algorithm for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks." Sensors 12, no. 9: 11754-11781.

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