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Embedded Adaptive Optics for Ubiquitous Lab-on-a-Chip Readout on Intact Cell Phones
Optical Devices Laboratory, Division of Applied Physics, IFM–Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping, Sweden
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani 12121, Thailand
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 May 2012; in revised form: 28 May 2012 / Accepted: 6 June 2012 / Published: 26 June 2012
Abstract: The evaluation of disposable lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices on cell phones is an attractive alternative to migrate the analytical strength of LOC solutions to decentralized sensing applications. Imaging the micrometric detection areas of LOCs in contact with intact phone cameras is central to provide such capability. This work demonstrates a disposable and morphing liquid lens concept that can be integrated in LOC devices and refocuses micrometric features in the range necessary for LOC evaluation using diverse cell phone cameras. During natural evaporation, the lens focus varies adapting to different type of cameras. Standard software in the phone commands a time-lapse acquisition for best focal selection that is sufficient to capture and resolve, under ambient illumination, 50 μm features in regions larger than 500 × 500 μm2. In this way, the present concept introduces a generic solution compatible with the use of diverse and unmodified cell phone cameras to evaluate disposable LOC devices.
Keywords: adaptive optics; lab-on-a-chip readout; optical chemical sensing; ubiquitous sensing; cell phones
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Preechaburana, P.; Suska, A.; Filippini, D. Embedded Adaptive Optics for Ubiquitous Lab-on-a-Chip Readout on Intact Cell Phones. Sensors 2012, 12, 8586-8600.
Preechaburana P, Suska A, Filippini D. Embedded Adaptive Optics for Ubiquitous Lab-on-a-Chip Readout on Intact Cell Phones. Sensors. 2012; 12(7):8586-8600.
Preechaburana, Pakorn; Suska, Anke; Filippini, Daniel. 2012. "Embedded Adaptive Optics for Ubiquitous Lab-on-a-Chip Readout on Intact Cell Phones." Sensors 12, no. 7: 8586-8600.