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Special Issue "Direct and Indirect Sensing of Odor and VOCs and Their Control"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ki-Hyun Kim (Website)

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-Ro, Seoul 133-791, Korea
Fax: +82 2 2220 1945
Interests: environmental monitoring; volatile organic compounds; reduced sulfur compounds; carbonyls

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, the frequency of odor and VOC pollution has been rising steadily to result in a change in our understanding of pollution in the urban environment. As a result, this type of pollution began to exert direct impacts on human health and nuisance at levels of pollution previously considered non-effective. More efforts are hence desirable to improve our application of sensing techniques to the detection and accurate evaluation of odorous compounds, characterization of odor pollution including human odor, and the direction of legislative and technical efforts to control various odorants. In this special issue, researchers are invited to present articles emphasizing more than one of the following subjects: (1) the measurement (sampling and/or sensing) techniques for odorants and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), (2) quantitative/qualitative analysis of human odor released from human body or excretion, and (3) legislative and/or technical efforts to control odor and VOCs in industry or livelihood facilities.

Prof. Dr. Ki-Hyun Kim
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • odor/VOC monitoring
  • direct method
  • indirect method
  • malodor
  • nuisance
  • olfactory sensing

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle FT-IR-cPAS—New Photoacoustic Measurement Technique for Analysis of Hot Gases: A Case Study on VOCs
Sensors 2011, 11(5), 5270-5289; doi:10.3390/s110505270
Received: 7 April 2011 / Revised: 4 May 2011 / Accepted: 12 May 2011 / Published: 16 May 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (892 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article describes a new photoacoustic FT-IR system capable of operating at elevated temperatures. The key hardware component is an optical-readout cantilever microphone that can work up to 200 °C. All parts in contact with the sample gas were put into a [...] Read more.
This article describes a new photoacoustic FT-IR system capable of operating at elevated temperatures. The key hardware component is an optical-readout cantilever microphone that can work up to 200 °C. All parts in contact with the sample gas were put into a heated oven, incl. the photoacoustic cell. The sensitivity of the built photoacoustic system was tested by measuring 18 different VOCs. At 100 ppm gas concentration, the univariate signal to noise ratios (1σ, measurement time 25.5 min, at highest peak, optical resolution 8 cm−1) of the spectra varied from minimally 19 for o-xylene up to 329 for butyl acetate. The sensitivity can be improved by multivariate analyses over broad wavelength ranges, which effectively co-adds the univariate sensitivities achievable at individual wavelengths. The multivariate limit of detection (3σ, 8.5 min, full useful wavelength range), i.e., the best possible inverse analytical sensitivity achievable at optimum calibration, was calculated using the SBC method and varied from 2.60 ppm for dichloromethane to 0.33 ppm for butyl acetate. Depending on the shape of the spectra, which often only contain a few sharp peaks, the multivariate analysis improved the analytical sensitivity by 2.2 to 9.2 times compared to the univariate case. Selectivity and multi component ability were tested by a SBC calibration including 5 VOCs and water. The average cross selectivities turned out to be less than 2% and the resulting inverse analytical sensitivities of the 5 interfering VOCs was increased by maximum factor of 2.2 compared to the single component sensitivities. Water subtraction using SBC gave the true analyte concentration with a variation coefficient of 3%, although the sample spectra (methyl ethyl ketone, 200 ppm) contained water from 1,400 to 100k ppm and for subtraction only one water spectra (10k ppm) was used. The developed device shows significant improvement to the current state-of-the-art measurement methods used in industrial VOC measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Sensing of Odor and VOCs and Their Control)
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Open AccessArticle An Electronic-Nose Sensor Node Based on a Polymer-Coated Surface Acoustic Wave Array for Wireless Sensor Network Applications
Sensors 2011, 11(5), 4609-4621; doi:10.3390/s110504609
Received: 3 February 2011 / Revised: 17 February 2011 / Accepted: 7 April 2011 / Published: 28 April 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study developed an electronic-nose sensor node based on a polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor array. The sensor node comprised an SAW sensor array, a frequency readout circuit, and an Octopus II wireless module. The sensor array was fabricated on a [...] Read more.
This study developed an electronic-nose sensor node based on a polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor array. The sensor node comprised an SAW sensor array, a frequency readout circuit, and an Octopus II wireless module. The sensor array was fabricated on a large K2 128° YX LiNbO3 sensing substrate. On the surface of this substrate, an interdigital transducer (IDT) was produced with a Cr/Au film as its metallic structure. A mixed-mode frequency readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) was fabricated using a TSMC 0.18 μm process. The ASIC output was connected to a wireless module to transmit sensor data to a base station for data storage and analysis. This sensor node is applicable for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Sensing of Odor and VOCs and Their Control)
Open AccessArticle Detection, Composition and Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds from Waste Treatment Plants
Sensors 2011, 11(4), 4043-4059; doi:10.3390/s110404043
Received: 23 February 2011 / Revised: 18 March 2011 / Accepted: 1 April 2011 / Published: 6 April 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (290 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Environmental policies at the European and global level support the diversion of wastes from landfills for their treatment in different facilities. Organic waste is mainly treated or valorized through composting, anaerobic digestion or a combination of both treatments. Thus, there are an [...] Read more.
Environmental policies at the European and global level support the diversion of wastes from landfills for their treatment in different facilities. Organic waste is mainly treated or valorized through composting, anaerobic digestion or a combination of both treatments. Thus, there are an increasing number of waste treatment plants using this type of biological treatment. During waste handling and biological decomposition steps a number of gaseous compounds are generated or removed from the organic matrix and emitted. Different families of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) can be found in these emissions. Many of these compounds are also sources of odor nuisance. In fact, odors are the main source of complaints and social impacts of any waste treatment plant. This work presents a summary of the main types of VOC emitted in organic waste treatment facilities and the methods used to detect and quantify these compounds, together with the treatment methods applied to gaseous emissions commonly used in composting and anaerobic digestion facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Sensing of Odor and VOCs and Their Control)
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Open AccessArticle Bromocresol Green/Mesoporous Silica Adsorbent for Ammonia Gas Sensing via an Optical Sensing Instrument
Sensors 2011, 11(4), 4060-4072; doi:10.3390/s110404060
Received: 20 January 2011 / Revised: 18 March 2011 / Accepted: 18 March 2011 / Published: 6 April 2011
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A meso-structured Al-MCM-41 material was impregnated with bromocresol green (BG) dye and then incorporated into a UV-Vis DRA spectroscopic instrument for the online detection of ammonia gas. The absorption response of the Al-MCM-41/BG ammonia sensing material was very sensitive at the optical [...] Read more.
A meso-structured Al-MCM-41 material was impregnated with bromocresol green (BG) dye and then incorporated into a UV-Vis DRA spectroscopic instrument for the online detection of ammonia gas. The absorption response of the Al-MCM-41/BG ammonia sensing material was very sensitive at the optical absorption wavelength of 630 nm. A high linear correlation was achieved for ppmv and sub-ppmv levels of ammonia gas. The response time for the quantitative detection of ammonia gas concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 2.0 ppmv was only a few minutes. The lower detection limit achieved was 0.185 ppmv. The color change process was fully reversible during tens of cycling tests. These features together make this mesoporous Al-MCM-41 material very promising for optical sensing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Sensing of Odor and VOCs and Their Control)
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Open AccessArticle Hedonic Judgments of Chemical Compounds Are Correlated with Molecular Size
Sensors 2011, 11(4), 3667-3686; doi:10.3390/s110403667
Received: 10 February 2011 / Revised: 16 March 2011 / Accepted: 23 March 2011 / Published: 25 March 2011
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Different psychophysical works have reported that, when a wide range of odors is assessed, the hedonic dimension is the most salient. Hence, pleasantness is the most basic attribute of odor perception. Recent studies suggest that the molecular size of a given odorant [...] Read more.
Different psychophysical works have reported that, when a wide range of odors is assessed, the hedonic dimension is the most salient. Hence, pleasantness is the most basic attribute of odor perception. Recent studies suggest that the molecular size of a given odorant is positively correlated with its hedonic character. This correlation was confirmed in the present study, but further basic molecular features affecting pleasantness were identified by means of multiple linear regression for the compounds contained in five chemical sets. For three of them, hedonic judgments are available in the literature. For a further two chemical sets, hedonic scores were estimated from odor character descriptions based on numerical profiles. Generally speaking, fairly similar equations were obtained for the prediction of hedonic judgments in the five chemical sets, with R2 values ranging from 0.46 to 0.71. The results suggest that larger molecules containing oxygen are more likely to be perceived as pleasant, while the opposite applies to carboxylic acids and sulfur compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Sensing of Odor and VOCs and Their Control)
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Open AccessArticle Optical Sensor for Diverse Organic Vapors at ppm Concentration Ranges
Sensors 2011, 11(3), 3267-3280; doi:10.3390/s110303267
Received: 17 February 2011 / Revised: 12 March 2011 / Accepted: 15 March 2011 / Published: 17 March 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A broadly responsive optical organic vapor sensor is described that responds to low concentrations of organic vapors without significant interference from water vapor. Responses to several classes of organic vapors are highlighted, and trends within classes are presented. The relationship between molecular [...] Read more.
A broadly responsive optical organic vapor sensor is described that responds to low concentrations of organic vapors without significant interference from water vapor. Responses to several classes of organic vapors are highlighted, and trends within classes are presented. The relationship between molecular properties (vapor pressure, boiling point, polarizability, and refractive index) and sensor response are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Sensing of Odor and VOCs and Their Control)
Open AccessArticle Gas-to-Particle Conversion in Surface Discharge Nonthermal Plasmas and Its Implications for Atmospheric Chemistry
Sensors 2011, 11(3), 2992-3003; doi:10.3390/s110302992
Received: 6 January 2011 / Revised: 21 February 2011 / Accepted: 4 March 2011 / Published: 7 March 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents some experimental data on gas-to-particle conversion of benzene using nonthermal plasma (NTP) technology and discusses the possibility of its technical application in atmospheric chemistry. Aerosol measurement using a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) revealed that the parts of benzene molecules [...] Read more.
This paper presents some experimental data on gas-to-particle conversion of benzene using nonthermal plasma (NTP) technology and discusses the possibility of its technical application in atmospheric chemistry. Aerosol measurement using a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) revealed that the parts of benzene molecules were converted into a nanometer-sized aerosol. Aerosol formation was found to be highly related with the missing part in carbon balance. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the aerosols formed in synthetic humid air are the collection of nanoparticles. The carbonyl band (C=O) was found to be an important chemical constituent in the aerosol. The potential of the NTP as an accelerated test tool in studying secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from VOCs will be also addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Sensing of Odor and VOCs and Their Control)
Open AccessArticle Olfaction and Hearing Based Mobile Robot Navigation for Odor/Sound Source Search
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 2129-2154; doi:10.3390/s110202129
Received: 17 December 2010 / Revised: 11 January 2011 / Accepted: 10 February 2011 / Published: 11 February 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (757 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bionic technology provides a new elicitation for mobile robot navigation since it explores the way to imitate biological senses. In the present study, the challenging problem was how to fuse different biological senses and guide distributed robots to cooperate with each other [...] Read more.
Bionic technology provides a new elicitation for mobile robot navigation since it explores the way to imitate biological senses. In the present study, the challenging problem was how to fuse different biological senses and guide distributed robots to cooperate with each other for target searching. This paper integrates smell, hearing and touch to design an odor/sound tracking multi-robot system. The olfactory robot tracks the chemical odor plume step by step through information fusion from gas sensors and airflow sensors, while two hearing robots localize the sound source by time delay estimation (TDE) and the geometrical position of microphone array. Furthermore, this paper presents a heading direction based mobile robot navigation algorithm, by which the robot can automatically and stably adjust its velocity and direction according to the deviation between the current heading direction measured by magnetoresistive sensor and the expected heading direction acquired through the odor/sound localization strategies. Simultaneously, one robot can communicate with the other robots via a wireless sensor network (WSN). Experimental results show that the olfactory robot can pinpoint the odor source within the distance of 2 m, while two hearing robots can quickly localize and track the olfactory robot in 2 min. The devised multi-robot system can achieve target search with a considerable success ratio and high stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Sensing of Odor and VOCs and Their Control)
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Open AccessArticle The Averaging Effect of Odorant Mixing as Determined by Air Dilution Sensory Tests: A Case Study on Reduced Sulfur Compounds
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1405-1417; doi:10.3390/s110201405
Received: 14 December 2010 / Revised: 5 January 2011 / Accepted: 20 January 2011 / Published: 26 January 2011
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (335 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To learn more about the effects of mixing different odorants, a series of air dilution sensory (ADS) tests were conducted using four reduced sulfur compounds [RSC: hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methanethiol (CH3SH), dimethylsulfide (DMS), and dimethyldisulfide (DMDS)] at varying [...] Read more.
To learn more about the effects of mixing different odorants, a series of air dilution sensory (ADS) tests were conducted using four reduced sulfur compounds [RSC: hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methanethiol (CH3SH), dimethylsulfide (DMS), and dimethyldisulfide (DMDS)] at varying concentration levels. The tests were initially conducted by analyzing samples containing single individual RSCs at a wide range of concentrations. The resulting data were then evaluated to define the empirical relationship for each RSC between the dilution-to-threshold (D/T) ratio and odor intensity (OI) scaling. Based on the relationships defined for each individual RSC, the D/T ratios were estimated for a synthetic mixture of four RSCs. The effect of mixing was then examined by assessing the relative contribution of each RSC to those estimates with the aid of the actually measured D/T values. This stepwise test confirmed that the odor intensity of the synthetic mixture is not governed by the common theoretical basis (e.g., rule of additivity, synergism, or a stronger component model) but is best represented by the averaged contribution of all RSC components. The overall results of this study thus suggest that the mixing phenomenon between odorants with similar chemical properties (like RSC family) can be characterized by the averaging effect of all participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Sensing of Odor and VOCs and Their Control)
Open AccessArticle Characterization of Carbonyl Compounds in the Ambient Air of an Industrial City in Korea
Sensors 2011, 11(1), 949-963; doi:10.3390/s110100949
Received: 2 December 2010 / Revised: 29 December 2010 / Accepted: 6 January 2011 / Published: 17 January 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (721 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to characterize spatial and temporal variations of carbonyl compounds in Gumi city, where a number of large electronic-industrial complexes are located. Carbonyl samples were collected at five sites in the Gumi area: three industrial, one commercial, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to characterize spatial and temporal variations of carbonyl compounds in Gumi city, where a number of large electronic-industrial complexes are located. Carbonyl samples were collected at five sites in the Gumi area: three industrial, one commercial, and one residential area. Sampling was carried out throughout a year from December 2003 to November 2004. At one industrial site, samples were taken every six days, while those of the other sites were for seven consecutive days in every season. Each sample was collected for 150 minutes and at intervals of three times a day (morning, afternoon, and evening). A total of 476 samples were analyzed to determine 15 carbonyl compounds by the USEPA TO-11A (DNPH-cartridge/HPLC) method. In general, acetaldehyde appeared to be the most abundant compound, followed by formaldehyde, and acetone+acrolein. Mean concentrations of acetaldehyde were two to three times higher in the industrial sites than in the other sites, with its maximum of 77.7 ppb. In contrast, ambient levels of formaldehyde did not show any significant difference between the industrial and non-industrial groups. Its concentrations peaked in summer probably due to the enhanced volatilization and photochemical reactivity. These results indicate significant emission sources of acetaldehyde in the Gumi industrial complexes. Mean concentrations of organic solvents (such as acetone+acrolein and methyl ethyl ketone) were also significantly high in industrial areas. In conclusion, major sources of carbonyl compounds, including acetaldehyde, are strongly associated with industrial activities in the Gumi city area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Sensing of Odor and VOCs and Their Control)
Open AccessArticle Porphyrin-Embedded Silicate Materials for Detection of Hydrocarbon Solvents
Sensors 2011, 11(1), 886-904; doi:10.3390/s110100886
Received: 1 December 2010 / Revised: 5 January 2011 / Accepted: 13 January 2011 / Published: 14 January 2011
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (762 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The development of porphyrin-embedded mesoporous organosilicate materials for application to the detection of volatile hydrocarbon solvents is described. Design of the receptor and optical indicator construct begins with parallel selection of the porphyrin indicator and design of the mesoporous sorbent. For the [...] Read more.
The development of porphyrin-embedded mesoporous organosilicate materials for application to the detection of volatile hydrocarbon solvents is described. Design of the receptor and optical indicator construct begins with parallel selection of the porphyrin indicator and design of the mesoporous sorbent. For the porphyrin indicator, high binding affinity and strong changes in spectrophotometric character upon target interaction are desired. The sorbent should provide high target binding capacity and rapid binding kinetics. A number of porphyrin/metalloporphyrin variants and organosilicate sorbents were evaluated to determine the characteristics of their interaction with the targets, benzene, toluene, and hexane. The selected porphyrin candidates were covalently immobilized within a benzene-bridged sorbent. This construct was applied to the detection of targets using both fluorescence- and reflectance-based protocols. The use of red, green, and blue (RGB) color values from the constructs in a highly simplified detection scheme is described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Sensing of Odor and VOCs and Their Control)
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Open AccessArticle A Local Weighted Nearest Neighbor Algorithm and a Weighted and Constrained Least-Squared Method for Mixed Odor Analysis by Electronic Nose Systems
Sensors 2010, 10(11), 10467-10483; doi:10.3390/s101110467
Received: 1 November 2010 / Revised: 11 November 2010 / Accepted: 15 November 2010 / Published: 18 November 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (480 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A great deal of work has been done to develop techniques for odor analysis by electronic nose systems. These analyses mostly focus on identifying a particular odor by comparing with a known odor dataset. However, in many situations, it would be more [...] Read more.
A great deal of work has been done to develop techniques for odor analysis by electronic nose systems. These analyses mostly focus on identifying a particular odor by comparing with a known odor dataset. However, in many situations, it would be more practical if each individual odorant could be determined directly. This paper proposes two methods for such odor components analysis for electronic nose systems. First, a K-nearest neighbor (KNN)-based local weighted nearest neighbor (LWNN) algorithm is proposed to determine the components of an odor. According to the component analysis, the odor training data is firstly categorized into several groups, each of which is represented by its centroid. The examined odor is then classified as the class of the nearest centroid. The distance between the examined odor and the centroid is calculated based on a weighting scheme, which captures the local structure of each predefined group. To further determine the concentration of each component, odor models are built by regressions. Then, a weighted and constrained least-squares (WCLS) method is proposed to estimate the component concentrations. Experiments were carried out to assess the effectiveness of the proposed methods. The LWNN algorithm is able to classify mixed odors with different mixing ratios, while the WCLS method can provide good estimates on component concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Sensing of Odor and VOCs and Their Control)
Open AccessArticle Development of a Portable Electronic Nose System for the Detection and Classification of Fruity Odors
Sensors 2010, 10(10), 9179-9193; doi:10.3390/s101009179
Received: 12 August 2010 / Revised: 29 September 2010 / Accepted: 8 October 2010 / Published: 15 October 2010
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (1221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we have developed a prototype of a portable electronic nose (E-Nose) comprising a sensor array of eight commercially available sensors, a data acquisition interface PCB, and a microprocessor. Verification software was developed to verify system functions. Experimental results indicate [...] Read more.
In this study, we have developed a prototype of a portable electronic nose (E-Nose) comprising a sensor array of eight commercially available sensors, a data acquisition interface PCB, and a microprocessor. Verification software was developed to verify system functions. Experimental results indicate that the proposed system prototype is able to identify the fragrance of three fruits, namely lemon, banana, and litchi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Sensing of Odor and VOCs and Their Control)
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Open AccessArticle Electronic Nose Breathprints Are Independent of Acute Changes in Airway Caliber in Asthma
Sensors 2010, 10(10), 9127-9138; doi:10.3390/s101009127
Received: 10 August 2010 / Revised: 15 September 2010 / Accepted: 25 September 2010 / Published: 12 October 2010
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Molecular profiling of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOC) by electronic nose technology provides breathprints that discriminate between patients with different inflammatory airway diseases, such as asthma and COPD. However, it is unknown whether this is determined by differences in airway caliber. We [...] Read more.
Molecular profiling of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOC) by electronic nose technology provides breathprints that discriminate between patients with different inflammatory airway diseases, such as asthma and COPD. However, it is unknown whether this is determined by differences in airway caliber. We hypothesized that breathprints obtained by electronic nose are independent of acute changes in airway caliber in asthma. Ten patients with stable asthma underwent methacholine provocation (Visit 1) and sham challenge with isotonic saline (Visit 2). At Visit 1, exhaled air was repetitively collected pre-challenge, after reaching the provocative concentration (PC20) causing 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and after subsequent salbutamol inhalation. At Visit 2, breath was collected pre-challenge, post-saline and post-salbutamol. At each occasion, an expiratory vital capacity was collected after 5 min of tidal breathing through an inspiratory VOC-filter in a Tedlar bag and sampled by electronic nose (Cyranose 320). Breathprints were analyzed with principal component analysis and individual factors were compared with mixed model analysis followed by pairwise comparisons. Inhalation of methacholine led to a 30.8 ± 3.3% fall in FEV1 and was followed by a significant change in breathprint (p = 0.04). Saline inhalation did not induce a significant change in FEV1, but altered the breathprint (p = 0.01). However, the breathprint obtained after the methacholine provocation was not significantly different from that after saline challenge (p = 0.27). The molecular profile of exhaled air in patients with asthma is altered by nebulized aerosols, but is not affected by acute changes in airway caliber. Our data demonstrate that breathprints by electronic nose are not confounded by the level of airway obstruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Sensing of Odor and VOCs and Their Control)
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Open AccessArticle Recovery of Agricultural Odors and Odorous Compounds from Polyvinyl Fluoride Film Bags
Sensors 2010, 10(9), 8536-8552; doi:10.3390/s100908536
Received: 7 July 2010 / Revised: 2 August 2010 / Accepted: 20 August 2010 / Published: 13 September 2010
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) and, subsequently, analyze with human [...] Read more.
Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) and, subsequently, analyze with human panelists using dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. The purpose of this research was to simultaneously quantify and compare recoveries of odor and odorous compounds from both commercial and homemade PVF sampling bags. A standard gas mixture consisting of p-cresol (40 µg m−3) and seven volatile fatty acids: acetic (2,311 µg m−3), propionic (15,800 µg m−3), isobutyric (1,686 µg m−3), butyric (1,049 µg m−3), isovaleric (1,236 µg m−3), valeric (643 µg m−3), and hexanoic (2,158 µg m−3) was placed in the PVF bags at times of 1 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, and 7 d prior to compound and odor concentration analyses. Compound concentrations were quantified using sorbent tubes and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Odor concentration, intensity, and hedonic tone were measured using a panel of trained human subjects. Compound recoveries ranged from 2 to 40% after 1 h and 0 to 14% after 7 d. Between 1 h and 7 d, odor concentrations increased by 45% in commercial bags, and decreased by 39% in homemade bags. Minimal changes were observed in intensity and hedonic tone over the same time period. These results suggest that PVF bags can bias individual compound concentrations and odor as measured by dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Sensing of Odor and VOCs and Their Control)
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Open AccessArticle Odours Influence Visually Induced Emotion: Behavior and Neuroimaging
Sensors 2010, 10(9), 8185-8197; doi:10.3390/s100908185
Received: 28 July 2010 / Revised: 26 August 2010 / Accepted: 31 August 2010 / Published: 1 September 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of olfaction on subjective valence intensity ratings of visual presentations. Pictures of five different categories (baby, flower, erotic, fear and disgust) were presented each being associated with five different odour conditions [...] Read more.
The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of olfaction on subjective valence intensity ratings of visual presentations. Pictures of five different categories (baby, flower, erotic, fear and disgust) were presented each being associated with five different odour conditions [no odour, low and high concentrations of phenylethyl alcohol (positive odour) and low and high concentrations of hydrogen sulphide (negative odour)]. Study participants had to rate the emotional content of each picture with respect to valence and intensity while brain activities were recorded with a whole-cortex magnetoencephalograph (MEG). A significant interaction between odour condition and picture category with respect to rating performance was found. In particular, positive valence intensity ratings related to flowers were increased in positive and negative odour conditions. Negative valence intensity ratings related to disgusting pictures were also increased in positive and negative odour conditions. The only decrease was found in the baby category in the high concentration negative odour condition. No behavioural effects were found for the categories erotic and fear. Around 300 ms after stimulus onset odour-related brain activity effects were found for all picture categories. On the other hand, around 700 ms after stimulus onset odour-related brain activity effects occurred only in the flower, fear and disgust picture categories. We interpret that early information processing demonstrates more pronounced olfactory and visually induced emotion interaction than later information processing. Since the early time window more likely reflects subconscious information processing we interpret that interaction between olfaction and visually induced emotion mostly occurs below the level of consciousness. Later, rather conscious information processing, seems to be differently influenced by simultaneous olfaction depending on the kind of emotion elicited through the sense of vision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Sensing of Odor and VOCs and Their Control)
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Open AccessArticle Characteristics of Ambient Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Measured in Shanghai, China
Sensors 2010, 10(8), 7843-7862; doi:10.3390/s100807843
Received: 25 June 2010 / Revised: 3 July 2010 / Accepted: 9 August 2010 / Published: 20 August 2010
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (666 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To better understand the characteristics of ambient abundance of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Shanghai, one of the biggest metropolis of China, VOCs were measured with a gas chromatography system equipped with a mass-selective detector (GC/MSD) from July 2006 to February 2010. [...] Read more.
To better understand the characteristics of ambient abundance of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Shanghai, one of the biggest metropolis of China, VOCs were measured with a gas chromatography system equipped with a mass-selective detector (GC/MSD) from July 2006 to February 2010. An intensive measurement campaign was conducted (eight samples per day with a 3 hour interval) during May 2009. The comparison of ambient VOCs collected in different regions of Shanghai shows that the concentrations are slightly higher in the busy commercial area (28.9 ppbv at Xujiaui) than in the urban administrative area (24.3 ppbv at Pudong). However, during the intensive measurement period, the concentrations in the large steel industrial area (28.7 ppbv at Baoshan) were much higher than in the urban administrative area (18 ppbv at Pudong), especially for alkanes, alkenes, and toluene. The seasonal variations of ambient VOC concentrations measured at the Xujiahui sampling site indicate that the VOC concentrations are significantly affected by meteorological conditions (such as wind direction and precipitation). In addition, although alkanes are the most abundant VOCs at the Xujiahui measurement site, the most important VOCs contributing to ozone formation potential (OFP) are aromatics, accounting for 57% of the total OFP. The diurnal variations of VOC concentrations show that VOC concentrations are higher on weekdays than in weekends at the Xujiahui sampling site, suggesting that traffic condition and human activities have important impacts on VOC emissions in Shanghai. The evidence also shows that the major sources of isoprene are mainly resulted from gasoline evaporation at a particular time (06:00–09:00) in the busy commercial area. The results gained from this study provide useful information for better understanding the characteristics of ambient VOCs and the sources of VOCs in Shanghai. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Sensing of Odor and VOCs and Their Control)
Open AccessArticle Experimental Demonstration of Masking Phenomena between Competing Odorants via an Air Dilution Sensory Test
Sensors 2010, 10(8), 7287-7302; doi:10.3390/s100807287
Received: 9 June 2010 / Revised: 8 July 2010 / Accepted: 22 July 2010 / Published: 3 August 2010
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To simulate the occurrence of masking phenomena with the aid of an air dilution sensory (ADS) test, two types of odorant mixtures were prepared: (1) M2 with two individual odorants [H2S and acetaldehyde (AA)] and (2) M6 with [...] Read more.
To simulate the occurrence of masking phenomena with the aid of an air dilution sensory (ADS) test, two types of odorant mixtures were prepared: (1) M2 with two individual odorants [H2S and acetaldehyde (AA)] and (2) M6 with six individual odorants (H2S and five aldehydes). The test results derived for samples containing single individual odorants at a wide range of concentrations are initially used to define the empirical relationship between the dilution-to-threshold (D/T) ratio and odor intensity (OI) scaling. Based on these relationships, the D/T ratios were estimated for each odorant with the same intensity as the synthetic mixture. The relative contribution of each odorant to such mixture is then assessed by comparing the estimated and measured D/T values. This stepwise test confirmed the dominance of certain compounds at a given OI rating. In the case of M2, H2S showed sensitive detection at high OI range, while AA did so at low end. The pattern of a competing relationship is also seen consistently from M6 between AA (low) and iso-valeraldehyde (IA: high OI range). The overall results thus suggest that the masking phenomena between strong odorants should proceed under competing relationships, if released at the same time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Sensing of Odor and VOCs and Their Control)
Open AccessArticle Automated Signal Processing Applied to Volatile-Based Inspection of Greenhouse Crops
Sensors 2010, 10(8), 7122-7133; doi:10.3390/s100807122
Received: 21 June 2010 / Revised: 15 July 2010 / Accepted: 20 July 2010 / Published: 28 July 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gas chromatograph–mass spectrometers (GC-MS) have been used and shown utility for volatile-based inspection of greenhouse crops. However, a widely recognized difficulty associated with GC-MS application is the large and complex data generated by this instrument. As a consequence, experienced analysts are often [...] Read more.
Gas chromatograph–mass spectrometers (GC-MS) have been used and shown utility for volatile-based inspection of greenhouse crops. However, a widely recognized difficulty associated with GC-MS application is the large and complex data generated by this instrument. As a consequence, experienced analysts are often required to process this data in order to determine the concentrations of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of interest. Manual processing is time-consuming, labour intensive and may be subject to errors due to fatigue. The objective of this study was to assess whether or not GC-MS data can also be automatically processed in order to determine the concentrations of crop health associated VOCs in a greenhouse. An experimental dataset that consisted of twelve data files was processed both manually and automatically to address this question. Manual processing was based on simple peak integration while the automatic processing relied on the algorithms implemented in the MetAlignTM software package. The results of automatic processing of the experimental dataset resulted in concentrations similar to that after manual processing. These results demonstrate that GC-MS data can be automatically processed in order to accurately determine the concentrations of crop health associated VOCs in a greenhouse. When processing GC-MS data automatically, noise reduction, alignment, baseline correction and normalisation are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Sensing of Odor and VOCs and Their Control)
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Open AccessReview Cognitive Facilitation Following Intentional Odor Exposure
Sensors 2011, 11(5), 5469-5488; doi:10.3390/s110505469
Received: 13 April 2011 / Revised: 10 May 2011 / Accepted: 17 May 2011 / Published: 19 May 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (196 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reviews evidence that, in addition to incidental olfactory pollutants, intentional odor delivery can impact cognitive operations both positively and negatively. Evidence for cognitive facilitation/interference is reviewed alongside four potential explanations for odor-induced effects. It is concluded that the pharmacological properties [...] Read more.
This paper reviews evidence that, in addition to incidental olfactory pollutants, intentional odor delivery can impact cognitive operations both positively and negatively. Evidence for cognitive facilitation/interference is reviewed alongside four potential explanations for odor-induced effects. It is concluded that the pharmacological properties of odors can induce changes in cognition. However, these effects can be accentuated/attenuated by the shift in mood following odor exposure, expectancy of cognitive effects, and cues to behavior via the contextual association with the odor. It is proposed that greater consideration is required in the intentional utilization of odors within both industrial and private locations, since differential effects are observed for odors with positive hedonic qualities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Sensing of Odor and VOCs and Their Control)
Open AccessReview Odour Detection Methods: Olfactometry and Chemical Sensors
Sensors 2011, 11(5), 5290-5322; doi:10.3390/s110505290
Received: 28 April 2011 / Revised: 5 May 2011 / Accepted: 5 May 2011 / Published: 16 May 2011
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The complexity of the odours issue arises from the sensory nature of smell. From the evolutionary point of view olfaction is one of the oldest senses, allowing for seeking food, recognizing danger or communication: human olfaction is a protective sense as it [...] Read more.
The complexity of the odours issue arises from the sensory nature of smell. From the evolutionary point of view olfaction is one of the oldest senses, allowing for seeking food, recognizing danger or communication: human olfaction is a protective sense as it allows the detection of potential illnesses or infections by taking into account the odour pleasantness/unpleasantness. Odours are mixtures of light and small molecules that, coming in contact with various human sensory systems, also at very low concentrations in the inhaled air, are able to stimulate an anatomical response: the experienced perception is the odour. Odour assessment is a key point in some industrial production processes (i.e., food, beverages, etc.) and it is acquiring steady importance in unusual technological fields (i.e., indoor air quality); this issue mainly concerns the environmental impact of various industrial activities (i.e., tanneries, refineries, slaughterhouses, distilleries, civil and industrial wastewater treatment plants, landfills and composting plants) as sources of olfactory nuisances, the top air pollution complaint. Although the human olfactory system is still regarded as the most important and effective “analytical instrument” for odour evaluation, the demand for more objective analytical methods, along with the discovery of materials with chemo-electronic properties, has boosted the development of sensor-based machine olfaction potentially imitating the biological system. This review examines the state of the art of both human and instrumental sensing currently used for the detection of odours. The olfactometric techniques employing a panel of trained experts are discussed and the strong and weak points of odour assessment through human detection are highlighted. The main features and the working principles of modern electronic noses (E-Noses) are then described, focusing on their better performances for environmental analysis. Odour emission monitoring carried out through both the techniques is finally reviewed in order to show the complementary responses of human and instrumental sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Sensing of Odor and VOCs and Their Control)

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