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Cognitive Facilitation Following Intentional Odor Exposure
Department of Psychology, Coventry University, UK
Received: 13 April 2011; in revised form: 10 May 2011 / Accepted: 17 May 2011 / Published: 19 May 2011
Abstract: This paper reviews evidence that, in addition to incidental olfactory pollutants, intentional odor delivery can impact cognitive operations both positively and negatively. Evidence for cognitive facilitation/interference is reviewed alongside four potential explanations for odor-induced effects. It is concluded that the pharmacological properties of odors can induce changes in cognition. However, these effects can be accentuated/attenuated by the shift in mood following odor exposure, expectancy of cognitive effects, and cues to behavior via the contextual association with the odor. It is proposed that greater consideration is required in the intentional utilization of odors within both industrial and private locations, since differential effects are observed for odors with positive hedonic qualities.
Keywords: odors; cognitive facilitation; memory; alertness; essential oils
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MDPI and ACS Style
Johnson, A.J. Cognitive Facilitation Following Intentional Odor Exposure. Sensors 2011, 11, 5469-5488.
Johnson AJ. Cognitive Facilitation Following Intentional Odor Exposure. Sensors. 2011; 11(5):5469-5488.
Johnson, Andrew J. 2011. "Cognitive Facilitation Following Intentional Odor Exposure." Sensors 11, no. 5: 5469-5488.