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Special Issue "Vitamin D"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Marc Lemay

165 Glendora Ave, Long Beach, CA 90803, USA
E-Mail
Interests: nutrients related to healthy longevity e.g. resveratrol; choline; carnitine; vitamin D; phytonutrients; treatment of subclinical vitamin and mineral deficiencies; ginkgo; essential fatty acids; botanical anti-inflammatory agents; nutrigenomics; metabolomics; microbiomics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Most of us are probably or definitely vitamin D deficient. A small amount of vitamin D, easy to obtain from a normal diet, prevents the short-latency deficiency disease rickets. But even the healthiest diet won't provide the far higher amounts that are now believed to play a part in maintaining health at every life stage. Multiple and congruent findings, mostly involving population studies, on the role of vitamin D deficiency in diabetes, mortality and morbidity in the intensive care unit, pulmonary disease, mood disorders and cognitive impairment, vascular disease, multiple sclerosis, and cancer, substantiate the recommendation that higher vitamin D plasma levels than previously believed are needed for health maintenance. The Institute of Medicine recently tripled its vitamin D RDA, but this was too conservative according to other experts who call for a tenfold or greater increase. For some, the crux of this moment in nutrition research is that the clinical trial has shown its limitations in research with single nutrients that work in combinations with other nutrients in the body. For others, controlled clinical trials are the fundamental need at this juncture because only they can provide the kind of evidence that will guide clinicians, who deal with individuals, and public policy makers, who deal with groups. How much evidence is enough, for whom? How much vitamin D is enough, for whom? The purpose of this special issue is to provide an update on this protean health-promoting steroid hormone, the heretofore lowly vitamin D.

Dr. Marc Lemay
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • vitamin D
  • cholecalciferol
  • calcitriol
  • cancer
  • healty aging
  • supplements
  • nutraceuticals
  • public policy
  • RDA
  • deficiency

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Vitamin D and Musculoskeletal Status in Nova Scotian Women Who Wear Concealing Clothing
Nutrients 2012, 4(5), 399-412; doi:10.3390/nu4050399
Received: 20 April 2012 / Revised: 2 May 2012 / Accepted: 16 May 2012 / Published: 24 May 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (202 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bone and muscle weakness due to vitamin D deficiency is common among Muslim women who reside in sunny, equatorial countries. The purpose of this study was to determine if living in a northern maritime location additionally disadvantages women who wear concealing clothes. A
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Bone and muscle weakness due to vitamin D deficiency is common among Muslim women who reside in sunny, equatorial countries. The purpose of this study was to determine if living in a northern maritime location additionally disadvantages women who wear concealing clothes. A cross-sectional matched pair design was used to compare women who habitually wore concealing clothing with women who dressed according to western norms. Each premenopausal hijab-wearing woman (n = 11) was matched by age, height, weight and skin tone with a western-dressed woman. Subjects were tested by hand grip dynamometry to assess muscular strength and by quantitative ultrasound at the calcaneus to assess bone status. Nutritional intake was obtained by 24 h recall. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) status was determined in seven matched pairs. The hijab group had lower s-25(OH)D than women who wore western clothes (40 ± 28 vs. 81 ± 32 nmol/L, p = 0.01). Grip strength in the right hand was lower in the hijab-wearing women (p = 0.05) but this appeared to be due to less participation in intense exercise. Bone status did not differ between groups (p = 0.9). Dietary intake of vitamin D was lower in the hijab-wearers (316 ± 353 vs. 601 ± 341 IU/day, p = 0.001). This pilot study suggests that women living in a northern maritime location appear to be at risk for vitamin D insufficiency and therefore should consider taking vitamin D supplements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Maternal Vitamin D Status and Delivery by Cesarean
Nutrients 2012, 4(4), 319-330; doi:10.3390/nu4040319
Received: 29 November 2011 / Revised: 23 February 2012 / Accepted: 13 April 2012 / Published: 20 April 2012
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We examined the association of vitamin D deficiency to risk of cesarean delivery using prospective data in a cohort of 1153 low income and minority gravidae. Circulating maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone were measured at entry to care 13.73 ± 5.6
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We examined the association of vitamin D deficiency to risk of cesarean delivery using prospective data in a cohort of 1153 low income and minority gravidae. Circulating maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone were measured at entry to care 13.73 ± 5.6 weeks (mean ± SD). Intake of vitamin D and calcium was assessed at three time points during pregnancy. Using recent Institute of Medicine guidelines, 10.8% of the gravidae were at risk of vitamin D deficiency, and 23.8% at risk of insufficiency. Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D was related positively to vitamin D and calcium intakes and negatively to circulating concentrations of parathyroid hormone. Risk for cesarean delivery was increased significantly for vitamin D deficient women; there was no increased risk for gravidae at risk of insufficiency. When specific indications were examined, vitamin D deficiency was linked to a 2-fold increased risk of cesarean for prolonged labor. Results were the similar when prior guidelines for vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 37.5nmol/L) and insufficiency (37.5–80 nmol/L) were utilized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D)
Open AccessArticle Sources and Determinants of Vitamin D Intake in Danish Pregnant Women
Nutrients 2012, 4(4), 259-272; doi:10.3390/nu4040259
Received: 8 March 2012 / Revised: 12 March 2012 / Accepted: 22 March 2012 / Published: 16 April 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (202 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with the development of several adverse health outcomes, e.g., pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm delivery, low birth weight, birth length, and bone mineral content. The aims of the present study were to estimate the intake
[...] Read more.
Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with the development of several adverse health outcomes, e.g., pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm delivery, low birth weight, birth length, and bone mineral content. The aims of the present study were to estimate the intake and sources of vitamin D in Danish pregnant women and to examine potential determinants of vitamin D intake of the recommended level (10 µg per day). In 68,447 Danish pregnant women the mean ± SD for vitamin D intake was 9.23 ± 5.60 µg per day (diet: 3.56 ± 2.05 µg per day, supplements: 5.67 ± 5.20 µg per day). 67.6% of the women reported use of vitamin D supplements but only 36.9% reported use of vitamin D supplements of at least 10 µg. Supplements were the primary source of vitamin D for the two higher quartiles of total vitamin D intake, with diet being the primary source for the two lower quartiles. Determinants of sufficient total vitamin D intake were: high maternal age, nulliparity, non-smoking, and filling out of the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) during summer or fall. We propose that clinicians encourage vitamin D supplementation among pregnant women, with special focus on vulnerable groups such as the young, smokers and multiparous women, in order to improve maternal and fetal health both during and after pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D)
Open AccessArticle Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels Among Boston Trainee Doctors in Winter
Nutrients 2012, 4(3), 197-207; doi:10.3390/nu4030197
Received: 1 December 2011 / Revised: 29 February 2012 / Accepted: 5 March 2012 / Published: 16 March 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As indoor workers, trainee doctors may be at risk for inadequate vitamin D. All trainee doctors (residents) in a Boston pediatric training program (residency) were invited to complete a survey, and undergo testing for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], PTH, and calcium during a
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As indoor workers, trainee doctors may be at risk for inadequate vitamin D. All trainee doctors (residents) in a Boston pediatric training program (residency) were invited to complete a survey, and undergo testing for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], PTH, and calcium during a 3-week period in March 2010. We examined the association between resident characteristics and serum 25(OH)D using Chi2 and Kruskal-Wallis test and multivariable linear and logistic regression. Of the 119 residents, 102 (86%) participated. Although the mean serum 25(OH)D level was 67 nmol/L (±26), 25 (25%) had a level < 50 nmol/L and 3 (3%) residents had levels < 25 nmol/L. In the multivariable model, factors associated with 25(OH)D levels were: female sex (β 12.7, 95% CI 3.6, 21.7), white race (β 21.7, 95% CI 11.7, 31.7), travel to more equatorial latitudes during the past 3 months (β 6.3, 95% CI 2.0, 10.5) and higher daily intake of vitamin D (β 1.1, 95% CI 0.04, 2.1). Although one in four residents in our study had a serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L, all of them would have been missed using current Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) screening guidelines. The use of traditional risk factors appears insufficient to identify low vitamin D in indoor workers at northern latitudes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D)
Open AccessArticle Evidence of Associations Between Feto-Maternal Vitamin D Status, Cord Parathyroid Hormone and Bone-Specific Alkaline Phosphatase, and Newborn Whole Body Bone Mineral Content
Nutrients 2012, 4(2), 68-77; doi:10.3390/nu4020068
Received: 24 November 2011 / Revised: 19 January 2012 / Accepted: 30 January 2012 / Published: 6 February 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In spite of a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in pregnant women and neonates, relationships among vitamin D status (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and whole body bone mineral content (WBBMC) in the newborn are poorly characterized. The
[...] Read more.
In spite of a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in pregnant women and neonates, relationships among vitamin D status (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and whole body bone mineral content (WBBMC) in the newborn are poorly characterized. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between maternal and cord 25(OH)D, PTH, BALP, and WBBMC in newborns in a multiethnic population in Oakland, California and to evaluate the predictive value of the biochemical indices as indicators of WBBMC. Maternal and cord blood were collected from 80 mother-infant pairs and infant WBBMC was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry 8–21 days post-birth. Cord PTH and BALP were each inversely correlated with infant WBBMC (r = −0.28, p = 0.01 and r = −0.26, p = 0.02) and with cord 25(OH)D (r = −0.24, p = 0.03 and r = −0.34, p = 0.002), while cord 25(OH)D and unadjusted or weight-adjusted WBBMC were not significantly correlated with one other. In multivariate regression modeling, infant WBBMC was most strongly predicted by infant weight ( p < 0.0001), while either PTH or BALP contributed modestly but significantly to the model (p = 0.006 and p = 0.03 respectively). Cord 25(OH)D was not a significant predictor of infant WBBMC. This study provides evidence of associations between feto-maternal 25(OH)D, cord PTH and BALP, and early infant WBBMC, though neither feto-maternal 25(OH)D nor the measured biochemical indices were suitable indicators of WBBMC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D)

Review

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Open AccessReview Vitamin D and Its Role During Pregnancy in Attaining Optimal Health of Mother and Fetus
Nutrients 2012, 4(3), 208-230; doi:10.3390/nu4030208
Received: 27 February 2012 / Revised: 2 March 2012 / Accepted: 5 March 2012 / Published: 21 March 2012
Cited by 49 | PDF Full-text (697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite its discovery a hundred years ago, vitamin D has emerged as one of the most controversial nutrients and prohormones of the 21st century. Its role in calcium metabolism and bone health is undisputed but its role in immune function and long-term health
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Despite its discovery a hundred years ago, vitamin D has emerged as one of the most controversial nutrients and prohormones of the 21st century. Its role in calcium metabolism and bone health is undisputed but its role in immune function and long-term health is debated. There are clear indicators from in vitro and animal in vivo studies that point to vitamin D’s indisputable role in both innate and adaptive immunity; however, the translation of these findings to clinical practice, including the care of the pregnant woman, has not occurred. Until recently, there has been a paucity of data from randomized controlled trials to establish clear cut beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy. An overview of vitamin metabolism, states of deficiency, and the results of recent clinical trials conducted in the U.S. are presented with an emphasis on what is known and what questions remain to be answered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D)
Open AccessReview Vitamin D Signaling in the Bovine Immune System: A Model for Understanding Human Vitamin D Requirements
Nutrients 2012, 4(3), 181-196; doi:10.3390/nu4030181
Received: 1 December 2011 / Revised: 29 February 2012 / Accepted: 5 March 2012 / Published: 15 March 2012
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (202 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The endocrine physiology of vitamin D in cattle has been rigorously investigated and has yielded information on vitamin D requirements, endocrine function in health and disease, general metabolism, and maintenance of calcium homeostasis in cattle. These results are relevant to human vitamin D
[...] Read more.
The endocrine physiology of vitamin D in cattle has been rigorously investigated and has yielded information on vitamin D requirements, endocrine function in health and disease, general metabolism, and maintenance of calcium homeostasis in cattle. These results are relevant to human vitamin D endocrinology. The current debate regarding vitamin D requirements is centered on the requirements for proper intracrine and paracrine vitamin D signaling. Studies in adult and young cattle can provide valuable insight for understanding vitamin D requirements as they relate to innate and adaptive immune responses during infectious disease. In cattle, toll-like receptor recognition activates intracrine and paracrine vitamin D signaling mechanism in the immune system that regulates innate and adaptive immune responses in the presence of adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Furthermore, experiments with mastitis in dairy cattle have provided in vivo evidence for the intracrine vitamin D signaling mechanism in macrophages as well as vitamin D mediated suppression of infection. Epidemiological evidence indicates that circulating concentrations above 32 ng/mL of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are necessary for optimal vitamin D signaling in the immune system, but experimental evidence is lacking for that value. Experiments in cattle can provide that evidence as circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations can be experimentally manipulated within ranges that are normal for humans and cattle. Additionally, young and adult cattle can be experimentally infected with bacteria and viruses associated with significant diseases in both cattle and humans. Utilizing the bovine model to further delineate the immunomodulatory role of vitamin D will provide potentially valuable insights into the vitamin D requirements of both humans and cattle, especially as they relate to immune response capacity and infectious disease resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D)
Open AccessReview Focus on Vitamin D, Inflammation and Type 2 Diabetes
Nutrients 2012, 4(1), 52-67; doi:10.3390/nu4010052
Received: 2 December 2011 / Revised: 29 December 2011 / Accepted: 9 January 2012 / Published: 20 January 2012
Cited by 50 | PDF Full-text (352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The initial observations linking vitamin D to type 2 diabetes in humans came from studies showing that both healthy and diabetic subjects had a seasonal variation of glycemic control. Currently, there is evidence supporting that vitamin D status is important to regulate some
[...] Read more.
The initial observations linking vitamin D to type 2 diabetes in humans came from studies showing that both healthy and diabetic subjects had a seasonal variation of glycemic control. Currently, there is evidence supporting that vitamin D status is important to regulate some pathways related to type 2 diabetes development. Since the activation of inflammatory pathways interferes with normal metabolism and disrupts proper insulin signaling, it is hypothesized that vitamin D could influence glucose homeostasis by modulating inflammatory response. Human studies investigating the impact of vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory biomarkers of subjects with or at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes are scarce and have generated conflicting results. Based on available clinical and epidemiological data, the positive effects of vitamin D seem to be primarily related to its action on insulin secretion and sensitivity and secondary to its action on inflammation. Future studies specifically designed to investigate the role of vitamin D on type 2 diabetes using inflammation as the main outcome are urgently needed in order to provide a more robust link between vitamin D, inflammation and type 2 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D)
Open AccessReview Theobald Palm and His Remarkable Observation: How the Sunshine Vitamin Came to Be Recognized
Nutrients 2012, 4(1), 42-51; doi:10.3390/nu4010042
Received: 3 November 2011 / Revised: 4 January 2012 / Accepted: 11 January 2012 / Published: 17 January 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The seminal discovery that sunlight was important in the prevention of nutritional rickets was made in 1890 by Theobald A. Palm, a medical missionary who contrasted the prevalence of rickets in northern European urban areas with similar areas in Japan and other tropical
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The seminal discovery that sunlight was important in the prevention of nutritional rickets was made in 1890 by Theobald A. Palm, a medical missionary who contrasted the prevalence of rickets in northern European urban areas with similar areas in Japan and other tropical countries. He surmised that exposure to sunlight prevented rickets. Over the next 40 years his observation led to an understanding of ultraviolet irradiation and its role in vitamin D synthesis. This opened a new era of appreciation for the curative powers of the sun and “the sunshine vitamin”. While Palm’s observations were in some ways obscure, they had a potent effect on the development of photobiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D)
Open AccessReview The Potential Role of Vitamin D Enhanced Foods in Improving Vitamin D Status
Nutrients 2011, 3(12), 1023-1041; doi:10.3390/nu3121023
Received: 2 November 2011 / Revised: 23 November 2011 / Accepted: 6 December 2011 / Published: 16 December 2011
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Low vitamin D intake and status have been reported worldwide and many studies have suggested that this low status may be involved in the development of several chronic diseases. There are a limited number of natural dietary sources of vitamin D leading to
[...] Read more.
Low vitamin D intake and status have been reported worldwide and many studies have suggested that this low status may be involved in the development of several chronic diseases. There are a limited number of natural dietary sources of vitamin D leading to a real need for alternatives to improve dietary intake. Enhancement of foods with vitamin D is a possible mode for ensuring increased consumption and thus improved vitamin D status. The present review examines studies investigating effects of vitamin D enhanced foods in humans and the feasibility of the approach is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D)

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