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Maternal Vitamin D Status and Delivery by Cesarean
Two Medical Center Drive, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, SOM, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Stratford, NJ 08084, USA
Two Medical Center Drive, Department of Surgery, SOM, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Stratford, NJ 08084, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2011; in revised form: 23 February 2012 / Accepted: 13 April 2012 / Published: 20 April 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D
Abstract: We examined the association of vitamin D deficiency to risk of cesarean delivery using prospective data in a cohort of 1153 low income and minority gravidae. Circulating maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone were measured at entry to care 13.73 ± 5.6 weeks (mean ± SD). Intake of vitamin D and calcium was assessed at three time points during pregnancy. Using recent Institute of Medicine guidelines, 10.8% of the gravidae were at risk of vitamin D deficiency, and 23.8% at risk of insufficiency. Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D was related positively to vitamin D and calcium intakes and negatively to circulating concentrations of parathyroid hormone. Risk for cesarean delivery was increased significantly for vitamin D deficient women; there was no increased risk for gravidae at risk of insufficiency. When specific indications were examined, vitamin D deficiency was linked to a 2-fold increased risk of cesarean for prolonged labor. Results were the similar when prior guidelines for vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 37.5nmol/L) and insufficiency (37.5–80 nmol/L) were utilized.
Keywords: pregnancy; 25 hydroxyvitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; vitamin D insufficiency; dietary vitamin D intake; dietary calcium intake; parathyroid hormone; cesarean delivery; prolonged labor
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Scholl, T.O.; Chen, X.; Stein, P. Maternal Vitamin D Status and Delivery by Cesarean. Nutrients 2012, 4, 319-330.
Scholl TO, Chen X, Stein P. Maternal Vitamin D Status and Delivery by Cesarean. Nutrients. 2012; 4(4):319-330.
Scholl, Theresa O.; Chen, Xinhua; Stein, Peter. 2012. "Maternal Vitamin D Status and Delivery by Cesarean." Nutrients 4, no. 4: 319-330.