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Vitamin D and Its Role During Pregnancy in Attaining Optimal Health of Mother and Fetus
Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, MSC 513, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
Global Health Center, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 February 2012; in revised form: 2 March 2012 / Accepted: 5 March 2012 / Published: 21 March 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D
Abstract: Despite its discovery a hundred years ago, vitamin D has emerged as one of the most controversial nutrients and prohormones of the 21st century. Its role in calcium metabolism and bone health is undisputed but its role in immune function and long-term health is debated. There are clear indicators from in vitro and animal in vivo studies that point to vitamin D’s indisputable role in both innate and adaptive immunity; however, the translation of these findings to clinical practice, including the care of the pregnant woman, has not occurred. Until recently, there has been a paucity of data from randomized controlled trials to establish clear cut beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy. An overview of vitamin metabolism, states of deficiency, and the results of recent clinical trials conducted in the U.S. are presented with an emphasis on what is known and what questions remain to be answered.
Keywords: vitamin D; cholecalciferol; calcitriol; pregnancy; neonate
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Wagner, C.L.; Taylor, S.N.; Dawodu, A.; Johnson, D.D.; Hollis, B.W. Vitamin D and Its Role During Pregnancy in Attaining Optimal Health of Mother and Fetus. Nutrients 2012, 4, 208-230.
Wagner CL, Taylor SN, Dawodu A, Johnson DD, Hollis BW. Vitamin D and Its Role During Pregnancy in Attaining Optimal Health of Mother and Fetus. Nutrients. 2012; 4(3):208-230.
Wagner, Carol L.; Taylor, Sarah N.; Dawodu, Adekunle; Johnson, Donna D.; Hollis, Bruce W. 2012. "Vitamin D and Its Role During Pregnancy in Attaining Optimal Health of Mother and Fetus." Nutrients 4, no. 3: 208-230.