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Vitamin D and Musculoskeletal Status in Nova Scotian Women Who Wear Concealing Clothing
School of Health and Human Performance, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5, Canada
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 April 2012; in revised form: 2 May 2012 / Accepted: 16 May 2012 / Published: 24 May 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D
Abstract: Bone and muscle weakness due to vitamin D deficiency is common among Muslim women who reside in sunny, equatorial countries. The purpose of this study was to determine if living in a northern maritime location additionally disadvantages women who wear concealing clothes. A cross-sectional matched pair design was used to compare women who habitually wore concealing clothing with women who dressed according to western norms. Each premenopausal hijab-wearing woman (n = 11) was matched by age, height, weight and skin tone with a western-dressed woman. Subjects were tested by hand grip dynamometry to assess muscular strength and by quantitative ultrasound at the calcaneus to assess bone status. Nutritional intake was obtained by 24 h recall. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) status was determined in seven matched pairs. The hijab group had lower s-25(OH)D than women who wore western clothes (40 ± 28 vs. 81 ± 32 nmol/L, p = 0.01). Grip strength in the right hand was lower in the hijab-wearing women (p = 0.05) but this appeared to be due to less participation in intense exercise. Bone status did not differ between groups (p = 0.9). Dietary intake of vitamin D was lower in the hijab-wearers (316 ± 353 vs. 601 ± 341 IU/day, p = 0.001). This pilot study suggests that women living in a northern maritime location appear to be at risk for vitamin D insufficiency and therefore should consider taking vitamin D supplements.
Keywords: vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; diet; northern latitude; bone status; muscle strength; hijab; clothing; Muslim; women
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Ojah, R.C.I.; Welch, J.M. Vitamin D and Musculoskeletal Status in Nova Scotian Women Who Wear Concealing Clothing. Nutrients 2012, 4, 399-412.
Ojah RCI, Welch JM. Vitamin D and Musculoskeletal Status in Nova Scotian Women Who Wear Concealing Clothing. Nutrients. 2012; 4(5):399-412.
Ojah, Rani C. I.; Welch, Jo M. 2012. "Vitamin D and Musculoskeletal Status in Nova Scotian Women Who Wear Concealing Clothing." Nutrients 4, no. 5: 399-412.