Nutrients 2012, 4(5), 399-412; doi:10.3390/nu4050399
Article

Vitamin D and Musculoskeletal Status in Nova Scotian Women Who Wear Concealing Clothing

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School of Health and Human Performance, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5, Canada These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 April 2012; in revised form: 2 May 2012 / Accepted: 16 May 2012 / Published: 24 May 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D)
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Abstract: Bone and muscle weakness due to vitamin D deficiency is common among Muslim women who reside in sunny, equatorial countries. The purpose of this study was to determine if living in a northern maritime location additionally disadvantages women who wear concealing clothes. A cross-sectional matched pair design was used to compare women who habitually wore concealing clothing with women who dressed according to western norms. Each premenopausal hijab-wearing woman (n = 11) was matched by age, height, weight and skin tone with a western-dressed woman. Subjects were tested by hand grip dynamometry to assess muscular strength and by quantitative ultrasound at the calcaneus to assess bone status. Nutritional intake was obtained by 24 h recall. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) status was determined in seven matched pairs. The hijab group had lower s-25(OH)D than women who wore western clothes (40 ± 28 vs. 81 ± 32 nmol/L, p = 0.01). Grip strength in the right hand was lower in the hijab-wearing women (p = 0.05) but this appeared to be due to less participation in intense exercise. Bone status did not differ between groups (p = 0.9). Dietary intake of vitamin D was lower in the hijab-wearers (316 ± 353 vs. 601 ± 341 IU/day, p = 0.001). This pilot study suggests that women living in a northern maritime location appear to be at risk for vitamin D insufficiency and therefore should consider taking vitamin D supplements.
Keywords: vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; diet; northern latitude; bone status; muscle strength; hijab; clothing; Muslim; women

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ojah, R.C.I.; Welch, J.M. Vitamin D and Musculoskeletal Status in Nova Scotian Women Who Wear Concealing Clothing. Nutrients 2012, 4, 399-412.

AMA Style

Ojah RCI, Welch JM. Vitamin D and Musculoskeletal Status in Nova Scotian Women Who Wear Concealing Clothing. Nutrients. 2012; 4(5):399-412.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ojah, Rani C. I.; Welch, Jo M. 2012. "Vitamin D and Musculoskeletal Status in Nova Scotian Women Who Wear Concealing Clothing." Nutrients 4, no. 5: 399-412.

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