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Focus on Vitamin D, Inflammation and Type 2 Diabetes
Center for Nutrition Practice and Research, Department of Education, Institute of Biosciences, São Paulo State University, Botucatu, SP 18618-970, Brazil
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 01246-904, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 December 2011; in revised form: 29 December 2011 / Accepted: 9 January 2012 / Published: 20 January 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D
Abstract: The initial observations linking vitamin D to type 2 diabetes in humans came from studies showing that both healthy and diabetic subjects had a seasonal variation of glycemic control. Currently, there is evidence supporting that vitamin D status is important to regulate some pathways related to type 2 diabetes development. Since the activation of inflammatory pathways interferes with normal metabolism and disrupts proper insulin signaling, it is hypothesized that vitamin D could influence glucose homeostasis by modulating inflammatory response. Human studies investigating the impact of vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory biomarkers of subjects with or at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes are scarce and have generated conflicting results. Based on available clinical and epidemiological data, the positive effects of vitamin D seem to be primarily related to its action on insulin secretion and sensitivity and secondary to its action on inflammation. Future studies specifically designed to investigate the role of vitamin D on type 2 diabetes using inflammation as the main outcome are urgently needed in order to provide a more robust link between vitamin D, inflammation and type 2 diabetes.
Keywords: vitamin D; inflammation; diabetes
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MDPI and ACS Style
Chagas, C.E.A.; Borges, M.C.; Martini, L.A.; Rogero, M.M. Focus on Vitamin D, Inflammation and Type 2 Diabetes. Nutrients 2012, 4, 52-67.
Chagas CEA, Borges MC, Martini LA, Rogero MM. Focus on Vitamin D, Inflammation and Type 2 Diabetes. Nutrients. 2012; 4(1):52-67.
Chagas, Carlos Eduardo Andrade; Borges, Maria Carolina; Martini, Lígia Araújo; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo. 2012. "Focus on Vitamin D, Inflammation and Type 2 Diabetes." Nutrients 4, no. 1: 52-67.