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Nutrients 2014, 6(5), 1782-1808; doi:10.3390/nu6051782
Review

Pre-Exercise Nutrition: The Role of Macronutrients, Modified Starches and Supplements on Metabolism and Endurance Performance

1,2,* , 1
 and 1
Received: 5 March 2014; in revised form: 3 April 2014 / Accepted: 14 April 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [260 KB, uploaded 29 April 2014]
Abstract: Endurance athletes rarely compete in the fasted state, as this may compromise fuel stores. Thus, the timing and composition of the pre-exercise meal is a significant consideration for optimizing metabolism and subsequent endurance performance. Carbohydrate feedings prior to endurance exercise are common and have generally been shown to enhance performance, despite increasing insulin levels and reducing fat oxidation. These metabolic effects may be attenuated by consuming low glycemic index carbohydrates and/or modified starches before exercise. High fat meals seem to have beneficial metabolic effects (e.g., increasing fat oxidation and possibly sparing muscle glycogen). However, these effects do not necessarily translate into enhanced performance. Relatively little research has examined the effects of a pre-exercise high protein meal on subsequent performance, but there is some evidence to suggest enhanced pre-exercise glycogen synthesis and benefits to metabolism during exercise. Finally, various supplements (i.e., caffeine and beetroot juice) also warrant possible inclusion into pre-race nutrition for endurance athletes. Ultimately, further research is needed to optimize pre-exercise nutritional strategies for endurance performance.
Keywords: carbohydrate; fat; protein; performance; caffeine; beet root juice; dietary nitrate; glycemic index; nutrient timing carbohydrate; fat; protein; performance; caffeine; beet root juice; dietary nitrate; glycemic index; nutrient timing
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ormsbee, M.J.; Bach, C.W.; Baur, D.A. Pre-Exercise Nutrition: The Role of Macronutrients, Modified Starches and Supplements on Metabolism and Endurance Performance. Nutrients 2014, 6, 1782-1808.

AMA Style

Ormsbee MJ, Bach CW, Baur DA. Pre-Exercise Nutrition: The Role of Macronutrients, Modified Starches and Supplements on Metabolism and Endurance Performance. Nutrients. 2014; 6(5):1782-1808.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ormsbee, Michael J.; Bach, Christopher W.; Baur, Daniel A. 2014. "Pre-Exercise Nutrition: The Role of Macronutrients, Modified Starches and Supplements on Metabolism and Endurance Performance." Nutrients 6, no. 5: 1782-1808.



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