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Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 4935-4960; doi:10.3390/nu6114935

Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Nutrition and Exercise and Sport Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
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Received: 23 April 2014 / Revised: 18 June 2014 / Accepted: 21 October 2014 / Published: 10 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
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Abstract

The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals. View Full-Text
Keywords: hunger; female athletes; diet; energy density; energy intake; amenorrhea hunger; female athletes; diet; energy density; energy intake; amenorrhea
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Howe, S.M.; Hand, T.M.; Manore, M.M. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake. Nutrients 2014, 6, 4935-4960.

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