Nutrients 2010, 2(5), 532-550; doi:10.3390/nu2050532
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Vitamin A–Not for Your Eyes Only: Requirement for Heart Formation Begins Early in Embryogenesis

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Received: 25 March 2010; in revised form: 7 May 2010 / Accepted: 18 May 2010 / Published: 25 May 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Vitamins)
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Abstract: Vitamin A insufficiency has profound adverse effects on embryonic development. Major advances in understanding the role of vitamin A in vertebrate heart formation have been made since the discovery that the vitamin A active form, all-trans-retinoic acid, regulates many genes, including developmental genes. Among the experimental models used, the vitamin A-deficient avian embryo has been an important tool to study the function of vitamin A during early heart formation. A cluster of retinoic acid-regulated developmental genes have been identified that participate in building the heart. In the absence of retinoic acid the embryonic heart develops abnormally leading to embryolethality.
Keywords: vitamin A-deficient; quail embryo; retinoic acid; gene regulation; heart morphogenesis

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zile, M.H. Vitamin A–Not for Your Eyes Only: Requirement for Heart Formation Begins Early in Embryogenesis. Nutrients 2010, 2, 532-550.

AMA Style

Zile MH. Vitamin A–Not for Your Eyes Only: Requirement for Heart Formation Begins Early in Embryogenesis. Nutrients. 2010; 2(5):532-550.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zile, Maija H. 2010. "Vitamin A–Not for Your Eyes Only: Requirement for Heart Formation Begins Early in Embryogenesis." Nutrients 2, no. 5: 532-550.

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