Nutrients 2010, 2(4), 426-437; doi:10.3390/nu2040426

Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease

Nutrition Department, School of Public Health, Sao Paulo University, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 715, Cerqueira César, CEP 01246-904, São Paulo, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 January 2010; in revised form: 15 March 2010 / Accepted: 19 March 2010 / Published: 31 March 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Vitamins)
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Abstract: Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency has been observed worldwide at all stages of life. It has been characterized as a public health problem, since low concentrations of this vitamin have been linked to the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. Several studies have suggested that vitamin D is involved in cardiovascular diseases and have provided evidence that it has a role in reducing cardiovascular disease risk. It may be involved in regulation of gene expression through the presence of vitamin D receptors in various cells, regulation of blood pressure (through renin-angiotensin system), and modulation of cell growth and proliferation including vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. Identifying correct mechanisms and relationships between vitamin D and such diseases could be important in relation to patient care and healthcare policies.
Keywords: vitamin D; cardiovascular disease; hypertension

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MDPI and ACS Style

Garcia, V.C.; Martini, L.A. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease. Nutrients 2010, 2, 426-437.

AMA Style

Garcia VC, Martini LA. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease. Nutrients. 2010; 2(4):426-437.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Garcia, Vivian Cristina; Martini, Lígia Araújo. 2010. "Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease." Nutrients 2, no. 4: 426-437.

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