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Special Issue "The Impact of Altered Timing of Eating, Sleep and Work Patterns on Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2016)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Siobhan Banks

School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: meal timing health; circadian rhythms and metabolic function; cognitive performance
Guest Editor
Dr. Alison M. Coates

Associate Professor, Nutritional Physiology Research Centre, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, South Australia 5001, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +61 8 830 22178
Interests: inflammation, obesity, bioactive nutrients, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome
Guest Editor
Dr. Jill Dorrian

School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: shift worker health; fatigue; caffeine and alcohol consumption

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Some 20% of the population is required to work outside the regular 9:00 a.m.–5:00 p.m. working day, and this number is likely to increase as economic demands push work hours into the night for many companies.

These irregular schedules mean workers often have to sleep during the day and be awake at night. This causes a misalignment between normal day-light entrained internal physiological processes, such as metabolism and digestion, and the external environment. As direct a consequence, night workers have poorer health than day workers, even after controlling for lifestyle and socioeconomic status.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to highlight the interrelationships between timing of food intake and diet quality with sleep and work patterns in humans with an emphasis on randomized controlled trials or meta-analyses of data from published studies.

Dr. Alison M. Coates
Dr. Siobhan Banks
Dr. Jill Dorrian
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Shiftwork and dietary patterns
  • Altered nutrient metabolism and circadian rhythms
  • Diet quality, sleep and work
  • Sleep and dietary factors
  • Meal timing and health

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Serum Amyloid A Production Is Triggered by Sleep Deprivation in Mice and Humans: Is That the Link between Sleep Loss and Associated Comorbidities?
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030311
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1095 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Serum amyloid A (SAA) was recently associated with metabolic endotoxemia, obesity and insulin resistance. Concurrently, insufficient sleep adversely affects metabolic health and is an independent predisposing factor for obesity and insulin resistance. In this study we investigated whether sleep loss modulates SAA production.
[...] Read more.
Serum amyloid A (SAA) was recently associated with metabolic endotoxemia, obesity and insulin resistance. Concurrently, insufficient sleep adversely affects metabolic health and is an independent predisposing factor for obesity and insulin resistance. In this study we investigated whether sleep loss modulates SAA production. The serum SAA concentration increased in C57BL/6 mice subjected to sleep restriction (SR) for 15 days or to paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) for 72 h. Sleep restriction also induced the upregulation of Saa1.1/Saa2.1 mRNA levels in the liver and Saa3 mRNA levels in adipose tissue. SAA levels returned to the basal range after 24 h in paradoxical sleep rebound (PSR). Metabolic endotoxemia was also a finding in SR. Increased plasma levels of SAA were also observed in healthy human volunteers subjected to two nights of total sleep deprivation (Total SD), returning to basal levels after one night of recovery. The observed increase in SAA levels may be part of the initial biochemical alterations caused by sleep deprivation, with potential to drive deleterious conditions such as metabolic endotoxemia and weight gain. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Risk of Being Obese According to Short Sleep Duration Is Modulated after Menopause in Korean Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030206
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 3 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (879 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We previously reported that women with short sleep duration consumed more dietary carbohydrate and showed an increased risk for obesity compared to those who slept adequately, but not for men. Using a cross-sectional study of 17,841 Korean women, we investigated the influence of
[...] Read more.
We previously reported that women with short sleep duration consumed more dietary carbohydrate and showed an increased risk for obesity compared to those who slept adequately, but not for men. Using a cross-sectional study of 17,841 Korean women, we investigated the influence of sleep duration on obesity-related variables and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods in relation to menopausal status. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration had significantly greater body weight (p = 0.007), body mass index (p = 0.003), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.028 and p = 0.024, respectively), prevalence of obesity (p < 0.016), and consumption of more carbohydrate-rich foods such as staple foods (p = 0.026) and simple sugar-rich foods (p = 0.044) than those with adequate sleep duration after adjustment for covariates. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration were more obese by 1.171 times compared to subjects adequate sleep duration (95% confidence interval = 1.030–1.330). However, obesity-related variables, dietary consumption, and odds of being obese did not differ according to sleep duration for postmenopausal women. The findings suggest that the increased risk for obesity and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods with short sleep duration appeared to disappear after menopause in Korean women. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influences on Dietary Choices during Day versus Night Shift in Shift Workers: A Mixed Methods Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030193
Received: 12 December 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 26 February 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (528 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Shift work is associated with diet-related chronic conditions such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to explore factors influencing food choice and dietary intake in shift workers. A fixed mixed method study design was undertaken on a convenience sample of firefighters
[...] Read more.
Shift work is associated with diet-related chronic conditions such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to explore factors influencing food choice and dietary intake in shift workers. A fixed mixed method study design was undertaken on a convenience sample of firefighters who continually work a rotating roster. Six focus groups (n = 41) were conducted to establish factors affecting dietary intake whilst at work. Dietary intake was assessed using repeated 24 h dietary recalls (n = 19). Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and interpreted using thematic analysis. Dietary data were entered into FoodWorks and analysed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test; p < 0.05 was considered significant. Thematic analysis highlighted four key themes influencing dietary intake: shift schedule; attitudes and decisions of co-workers; time and accessibility; and knowledge of the relationship between food and health. Participants reported consuming more discretionary foods and limited availability of healthy food choices on night shift. Energy intakes (kJ/day) did not differ between days that included a day or night shift but greater energy density (EDenergy, kJ/g/day) of the diet was observed on night shift compared with day shift. This study has identified a number of dietary-specific shift-related factors that may contribute to an increase in unhealthy behaviours in a shift-working population. Given the increased risk of developing chronic diseases, organisational change to support workers in this environment is warranted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Effect of Lactium™ and Zizyphus Complex on Sleep Quality: A Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020154
Received: 26 July 2016 / Revised: 19 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
PDF Full-text (1033 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Acute, non-clinical insomnia is not uncommon. Sufferers commonly turn to short-term use of herbal supplements to alleviate the symptoms. This placebo-controlled, double-blind study investigated the efficacy of LZComplex3 (lactium™, Zizyphus, Humulus lupulus, magnesium and vitamin B6), in otherwise healthy adults with
[...] Read more.
Acute, non-clinical insomnia is not uncommon. Sufferers commonly turn to short-term use of herbal supplements to alleviate the symptoms. This placebo-controlled, double-blind study investigated the efficacy of LZComplex3 (lactium™, Zizyphus, Humulus lupulus, magnesium and vitamin B6), in otherwise healthy adults with mild insomnia. After a 7-day single-blind placebo run-in, eligible volunteers (n = 171) were randomized (1:1) to receive daily treatment for 2 weeks with LZComplex3 or placebo. Results revealed that sleep quality measured by change in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score improved in both the LZComplex3 and placebo groups. There were no significant between group differences between baseline and endpoint on the primary outcome. The majority of secondary outcomes, which included daytime functioning and physical fatigue, mood and anxiety, cognitive performance, and stress reactivity, showed similar improvements in the LZComplex3 and placebo groups. A similar proportion of participants reported adverse events (AEs) in both groups, with two of four treatment-related AEs in the LZComplex3 group resulting in permanent discontinuation. It currently cannot be concluded that administration of LZComplex3 for 2 weeks improves sleep quality, however, a marked placebo response (despite placebo run-in) and/or short duration of treatment may have masked a potential beneficial effect on sleep quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association between Serum Vitamin D Levels and Sleep Disturbance in Hemodialysis Patients
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020139
Received: 19 August 2016 / Revised: 17 January 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 14 February 2017
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Abstract
Sleep disturbance is a frequent and serious complication of hemodialysis (HD). Low serum vitamin D levels have been associated with sleep quality in non-HD subjects. Our aim was to examine the possible association between serum vitamin D levels and the presence of sleep
[...] Read more.
Sleep disturbance is a frequent and serious complication of hemodialysis (HD). Low serum vitamin D levels have been associated with sleep quality in non-HD subjects. Our aim was to examine the possible association between serum vitamin D levels and the presence of sleep disturbance in HD patients. We recruited 141 HD patients at the HD center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Jiaxing University during 2014–2015. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were determined by the competitive protein-binding assay. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were recorded. Meanwhile, 117 healthy control subjects were also recruited and underwent measurement of 25(OH)D. Eighty-eight patients (62.4%) had sleep disturbance (PSQI scores ≥ 5). Patients with sleep disturbance showed lower levels of 25(OH)D as compared to those without sleep disturbance (85.6 ± 37.4 vs. 39.1 ± 29.1 nmol/L, p < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, serum levels of 25(OH)D (≤48.0 nmol/L) were independently associated with sleep disturbance in HD patients (OR 9.897, 95% CI 3.356–29.187, p < 0.001) after adjustment for possible variables. Our study demonstrates that low serum levels of vitamin D are independently associated with sleep disturbance in HD patients, but the finding needs to be confirmed in future experimental and clinical studies. Full article
Open AccessArticle Relationship between Self-Reported Dietary Nutrient Intake and Self-Reported Sleep Duration among Japanese Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020134
Received: 7 November 2016 / Revised: 19 January 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several studies have reported that short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity and metabolic disease. Moreover, both sleep duration and sleep timing might independently be associated with dietary nutrient intake. In this study, we investigated the associations between self-reported sleep duration
[...] Read more.
Several studies have reported that short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity and metabolic disease. Moreover, both sleep duration and sleep timing might independently be associated with dietary nutrient intake. In this study, we investigated the associations between self-reported sleep duration and dietary nutrient intake, with and without adjustments for variations in sleep timing (i.e., the midpoint of sleep). We conducted a questionnaire survey, comprising a validated brief self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) and the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) among 1902 healthy Japanese adults and found that the dietary intakes of several nutrients correlated with sleep duration among men regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep. Particularly, (1) small but significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and the percentage of energy from protein, regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep; (2) energy-adjusted intakes of sodium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 also significantly correlated with sleep duration; and (3) intakes of bread, pulses, and fish and shellfish correlated with sleep duration. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and dietary intakes among women. This study revealed that after controlling for the midpoint of sleep, sleep duration correlated significantly with the dietary intake of specific nutrients and foods in a population of Japanese men. Full article
Open AccessArticle Phenotypic Stability of Energy Balance Responses to Experimental Total Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Restriction in Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120823
Received: 15 November 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1535 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Experimental studies have shown that sleep restriction (SR) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) produce increased caloric intake, greater fat consumption, and increased late-night eating. However, whether individuals show similar energy intake responses to both SR and TSD remains unknown. A total of N
[...] Read more.
Experimental studies have shown that sleep restriction (SR) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) produce increased caloric intake, greater fat consumption, and increased late-night eating. However, whether individuals show similar energy intake responses to both SR and TSD remains unknown. A total of N = 66 healthy adults (aged 21–50 years, 48.5% women, 72.7% African American) participated in a within-subjects laboratory protocol to compare daily and late-night intake between one night of SR (4 h time in bed, 04:00–08:00) and one night of TSD (0 h time in bed) conditions. We also examined intake responses during subsequent recovery from SR or TSD and investigated gender differences. Caloric and macronutrient intake during the day following SR and TSD were moderately to substantially consistent within individuals (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.34–0.75). During the late-night period of SR (22:00–04:00) and TSD (22:00–06:00), such consistency was slight to moderate, and participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein (p = 0.01) and saturated fat (p = 0.02) during SR, despite comparable caloric intake (p = 0.12). Similarly, participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from saturated fat during the day following SR than TSD (p = 0.03). Participants also consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein during recovery after TSD (p < 0.001). Caloric intake was greater in men during late-night hours and the day following sleep loss. This is the first evidence of phenotypic trait-like stability and differential vulnerability of energy balance responses to two commonly experienced types of sleep loss: our findings open the door for biomarker discovery and countermeasure development to predict and mitigate this critical health-related vulnerability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sleep Duration and Chronic Fatigue Are Differently Associated with the Dietary Profile of Shift Workers
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120771
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 18 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (462 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Shift work has been associated with dietary changes. This study examined factors associated with the dietary profiles of shift workers from several industries (n = 118, 57 male; age = 43.4 ± 9.9 years) employed on permanent mornings, nights, or rotating 8-h
[...] Read more.
Shift work has been associated with dietary changes. This study examined factors associated with the dietary profiles of shift workers from several industries (n = 118, 57 male; age = 43.4 ± 9.9 years) employed on permanent mornings, nights, or rotating 8-h or 12-h shifts. The dietary profile was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Shift-related (e.g., sleep duration and fatigue), work-related (e.g., industry), and demographic factors (e.g., BMI) were measured using a modified version of the Standard Shift work Index. Mean daily energy intake was 8628 ± 3161 kJ. As a percentage of daily energy intake, all workers reported lower than recommended levels of carbohydrate (CHO, 45%–65%). Protein was within recommended levels (15%–25%). Permanent night workers were the only group to report higher than recommended fat intake (20%–35%). However, all workers reported higher than recommended levels of saturated fat (>10%) with those on permanent nights reporting significantly higher levels than other groups (Mean = 15.5% ± 3.1%, p < 0.05). Shorter sleep durations and decreased fatigue were associated with higher CHO intake (p ≤ 0.05) whereas increased fatigue and longer sleep durations were associated with higher intake of fat (p ≤ 0.05). Findings demonstrate sleep duration, fatigue, and shift schedule are associated with the dietary profile of shift workers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Six-Month Diet Intervention on Sleep among Overweight and Obese Men with Chronic Insomnia Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8110751
Received: 14 September 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (912 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Growing evidence suggests that diet alteration affects sleep, but this has not yet been studied in adults with insomnia symptoms. We aimed to determine the effect of a six-month diet intervention on sleep among overweight and obese (Body mass index, BMI ≥ 25
[...] Read more.
Growing evidence suggests that diet alteration affects sleep, but this has not yet been studied in adults with insomnia symptoms. We aimed to determine the effect of a six-month diet intervention on sleep among overweight and obese (Body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) men with chronic insomnia symptoms. Forty-nine men aged 30–65 years with chronic insomnia symptoms were randomized into diet (n = 28) or control (n = 21) groups. The diet group underwent a six-month individualized diet intervention with three face-to-face counseling sessions and online supervision 1–3 times per week; 300–500 kcal/day less energy intake and optimized nutrient composition were recommended. Controls were instructed to maintain their habitual lifestyle. Sleep parameters were determined by piezoelectric bed sensors, a sleep diary, and a Basic Nordic sleep questionnaire. Compared to the controls, the diet group had shorter objective sleep onset latency after intervention. Within the diet group, prolonged objective total sleep time, improved objective sleep efficiency, lower depression score, less subjective nocturnal awakenings, and nocturia were found after intervention. In conclusion, modest energy restriction and optimized nutrient composition shorten sleep onset latency in overweight and obese men with insomnia symptoms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Relevance of Morning and Evening Energy and Macronutrient Intake during Childhood for Body Composition in Early Adolescence
Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 716; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8110716
Received: 11 August 2016 / Revised: 30 October 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 10 November 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (579 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
(1) Background: This study investigated the relevance of morning and evening energy and macronutrient intake during childhood for body composition in early adolescence; (2) Methods: Analyses were based on data from 372 DONALD (DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed study) participants. Explorative life-course
[...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study investigated the relevance of morning and evening energy and macronutrient intake during childhood for body composition in early adolescence; (2) Methods: Analyses were based on data from 372 DONALD (DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed study) participants. Explorative life-course plots were performed to examine whether morning or evening energy and macronutrient intake at 3/4 years, 5/6 years, or 7/8 years is critical for fat mass index (FMI [kg/m2]) and fat free mass index (FFMI [kg/m2]) in early adolescence (10/11 years). Subsequently, exposures in periods identified as consistently critical were examined in depth using adjusted regression models; (3) Results: Life-course plots identified morning fat and carbohydrate (CHO) intake at 3/4 years and 7/8 years as well as changes in these intakes between 3/4 years and 7/8 years as potentially critical for FMI at 10/11 years. Adjusted regression models corroborated higher FMI values at 10/11 years among those who had consumed less fat (p = 0.01) and more CHO (p = 0.01) in the morning at 7/8 years as well as among those who had decreased their morning fat intake (p = 0.02) and increased their morning CHO intake (p = 0.05) between 3/4 years and 7/8 years; (4) Conclusion: During childhood, adherence to a low fat, high CHO intake in the morning may have unfavorable consequences for FMI in early adolescence. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Shift in Food Intake and Changes in Metabolic Regulation and Gene Expression during Simulated Night-Shift Work: A Rat Model
Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8110712
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 25 October 2016 / Accepted: 28 October 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1620 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Night-shift work is linked to a shift in food intake toward the normal sleeping period, and to metabolic disturbance. We applied a rat model of night-shift work to assess the immediate effects of such a shift in food intake on metabolism. Male Wistar
[...] Read more.
Night-shift work is linked to a shift in food intake toward the normal sleeping period, and to metabolic disturbance. We applied a rat model of night-shift work to assess the immediate effects of such a shift in food intake on metabolism. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 8 h of forced activity during their rest (ZT2-10) or active (ZT14-22) phase. Food intake, body weight, and body temperature were monitored across four work days and eight recovery days. Food intake gradually shifted toward rest-work hours, stabilizing on work day three. A subgroup of animals was euthanized after the third work session for analysis of metabolic gene expression in the liver by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results show that work in the rest phase shifted food intake to rest-work hours. Moreover, liver genes related to energy storage and insulin metabolism were upregulated, and genes related to energy breakdown were downregulated compared to non-working time-matched controls. Both working groups lost weight during the protocol and regained weight during recovery, but animals that worked in the rest phase did not fully recover, even after eight days of recovery. In conclusion, three to four days of work in the rest phase is sufficient to induce disruption of several metabolic parameters, which requires more than eight days for full recovery. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Caffeine Consumption and Sleep Quality in Australian Adults
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080479
Received: 24 May 2016 / Revised: 28 July 2016 / Accepted: 1 August 2016 / Published: 4 August 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (925 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Caffeine is commonly consumed to help offset fatigue, however, it can have several negative effects on sleep quality and quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between caffeine consumption and sleep quality in adults using a newly validated caffeine
[...] Read more.
Caffeine is commonly consumed to help offset fatigue, however, it can have several negative effects on sleep quality and quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between caffeine consumption and sleep quality in adults using a newly validated caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ). In this cross sectional study, 80 adults (M ± SD: 38.9 ± 19.3 years) attended the University of South Australia to complete a C-FFQ and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Caffeine consumption remained stable across age groups while the source of caffeine varied. Higher total caffeine consumption was associated with decreased time in bed, as an estimate of sleep time (r = −0.229, p = 0.041), but other PSQI variables were not. Participants who reported poor sleep (PSQI global score ≥ 5) consumed 192.1 ± 122.5 mg (M ± SD) of caffeine which was significantly more than those who reported good sleep quality (PSQI global score < 5; 125.2 ± 62.6 mg; p = 0.008). The C-FFQ was found to be a quick but detailed way to collect population based caffeine consumption data. The data suggests that shorter sleep is associated with greater caffeine consumption, and that consumption is greater in adults with reduced sleep quality. Full article
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Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview The Impact of Shiftwork on Skeletal Muscle Health
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030248
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 26 February 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1127 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
(1) Background: About one in four workers undertake shift rosters that fall outside the traditional 7 a.m.–6 p.m. scheduling. Shiftwork alters workers’ exposure to natural and artificial light, sleep patterns, and feeding patterns. When compared to the rest of the working population, shiftworkers
[...] Read more.
(1) Background: About one in four workers undertake shift rosters that fall outside the traditional 7 a.m.–6 p.m. scheduling. Shiftwork alters workers’ exposure to natural and artificial light, sleep patterns, and feeding patterns. When compared to the rest of the working population, shiftworkers are at a greater risk of developing metabolic impairments over time. One fundamental component of metabolic health is skeletal muscle, the largest organ in the body. However, cause-and-effect relationships between shiftwork and skeletal muscle health have not been established; (2) Methods: A critical review of the literature was completed using online databases and reference lists; (3) Results: We propose a conceptual model drawing relationships between typical shiftwork consequences; altered light exposure, sleep patterns, and food and beverage consumption, and drivers of skeletal muscle health—protein intake, resistance training, and hormone release. At present, there is no study investigating the direct effect of shiftwork on skeletal muscle health. Instead, research findings showing that acute consequences of shiftwork negatively influence skeletal muscle homeostasis support the validity of our model; (4) Conclusion: Further research is required to test the potential relationships identified in our review, particularly in shiftwork populations. Part of this testing could include skeletal muscle specific interventions such as targeted protein intake and/or resistance-training. Full article
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Open AccessReview Matching Meals to Body Clocks—Impact on Weight and Glucose Metabolism
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030222
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes continues to rise worldwide and is reaching pandemic proportions. The notion that this is due to obesity, resulting from excessive energy consumption and reduced physical activity, is overly simplistic. Circadian de-synchrony, which occurs when physiological processes are
[...] Read more.
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes continues to rise worldwide and is reaching pandemic proportions. The notion that this is due to obesity, resulting from excessive energy consumption and reduced physical activity, is overly simplistic. Circadian de-synchrony, which occurs when physiological processes are at odds with timing imposed by internal clocks, also promotes obesity and impairs glucose tolerance in mouse models, and is a feature of modern human lifestyles. The purpose of this review is to highlight what is known about glucose metabolism in animal and human models of circadian de-synchrony and examine the evidence as to whether shifts in meal timing contribute to impairments in glucose metabolism, gut hormone secretion and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Lastly, we examine whether restricting food intake to discrete time periods, will prevent or reverse abnormalities in glucose metabolism with the view to improving metabolic health in shift workers and in those more generally at risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Full article
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