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Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 771; doi:10.3390/nu8120771

Sleep Duration and Chronic Fatigue Are Differently Associated with the Dietary Profile of Shift Workers

1
Centre for Sleep Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5000, Australia
2
Alliance for Research in Exercise, University of South Australia, Nutrition and Activity, Adelaide 5000, Australia
3
Appleton Institute for Behavioural Science, Central Queensland University, Wayville 5034, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 18 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
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Abstract

Shift work has been associated with dietary changes. This study examined factors associated with the dietary profiles of shift workers from several industries (n = 118, 57 male; age = 43.4 ± 9.9 years) employed on permanent mornings, nights, or rotating 8-h or 12-h shifts. The dietary profile was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Shift-related (e.g., sleep duration and fatigue), work-related (e.g., industry), and demographic factors (e.g., BMI) were measured using a modified version of the Standard Shift work Index. Mean daily energy intake was 8628 ± 3161 kJ. As a percentage of daily energy intake, all workers reported lower than recommended levels of carbohydrate (CHO, 45%–65%). Protein was within recommended levels (15%–25%). Permanent night workers were the only group to report higher than recommended fat intake (20%–35%). However, all workers reported higher than recommended levels of saturated fat (>10%) with those on permanent nights reporting significantly higher levels than other groups (Mean = 15.5% ± 3.1%, p < 0.05). Shorter sleep durations and decreased fatigue were associated with higher CHO intake (p ≤ 0.05) whereas increased fatigue and longer sleep durations were associated with higher intake of fat (p ≤ 0.05). Findings demonstrate sleep duration, fatigue, and shift schedule are associated with the dietary profile of shift workers. View Full-Text
Keywords: shift work; shift schedule; sleep duration; fatigue; diet; energy intake; macronutrient distribution; dietary profile shift work; shift schedule; sleep duration; fatigue; diet; energy intake; macronutrient distribution; dietary profile
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Heath, G.; Coates, A.; Sargent, C.; Dorrian, J. Sleep Duration and Chronic Fatigue Are Differently Associated with the Dietary Profile of Shift Workers. Nutrients 2016, 8, 771.

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