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Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 716; doi:10.3390/nu8110716

Relevance of Morning and Evening Energy and Macronutrient Intake during Childhood for Body Composition in Early Adolescence

IEL-Nutritional Epidemiology, DONALD Study, University of Bonn, Heinstueck 11, 44225 Dortmund, Germany
Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Auf’m Hennekamp 65, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, 85764 München-Neuherberg, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 August 2016 / Revised: 30 October 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 10 November 2016
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(1) Background: This study investigated the relevance of morning and evening energy and macronutrient intake during childhood for body composition in early adolescence; (2) Methods: Analyses were based on data from 372 DONALD (DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed study) participants. Explorative life-course plots were performed to examine whether morning or evening energy and macronutrient intake at 3/4 years, 5/6 years, or 7/8 years is critical for fat mass index (FMI [kg/m2]) and fat free mass index (FFMI [kg/m2]) in early adolescence (10/11 years). Subsequently, exposures in periods identified as consistently critical were examined in depth using adjusted regression models; (3) Results: Life-course plots identified morning fat and carbohydrate (CHO) intake at 3/4 years and 7/8 years as well as changes in these intakes between 3/4 years and 7/8 years as potentially critical for FMI at 10/11 years. Adjusted regression models corroborated higher FMI values at 10/11 years among those who had consumed less fat (p = 0.01) and more CHO (p = 0.01) in the morning at 7/8 years as well as among those who had decreased their morning fat intake (p = 0.02) and increased their morning CHO intake (p = 0.05) between 3/4 years and 7/8 years; (4) Conclusion: During childhood, adherence to a low fat, high CHO intake in the morning may have unfavorable consequences for FMI in early adolescence. View Full-Text
Keywords: childhood; adolescence; morning intake; evening intake; macronutrient intake; fat mass childhood; adolescence; morning intake; evening intake; macronutrient intake; fat mass

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Diederichs, T.; Roßbach, S.; Herder, C.; Alexy, U.; Buyken, A.E. Relevance of Morning and Evening Energy and Macronutrient Intake during Childhood for Body Composition in Early Adolescence. Nutrients 2016, 8, 716.

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