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Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 716; doi:10.3390/nu8110716

Relevance of Morning and Evening Energy and Macronutrient Intake during Childhood for Body Composition in Early Adolescence

1
IEL-Nutritional Epidemiology, DONALD Study, University of Bonn, Heinstueck 11, 44225 Dortmund, Germany
2
Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Auf’m Hennekamp 65, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
3
German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, 85764 München-Neuherberg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 August 2016 / Revised: 30 October 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 10 November 2016
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Abstract

(1) Background: This study investigated the relevance of morning and evening energy and macronutrient intake during childhood for body composition in early adolescence; (2) Methods: Analyses were based on data from 372 DONALD (DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed study) participants. Explorative life-course plots were performed to examine whether morning or evening energy and macronutrient intake at 3/4 years, 5/6 years, or 7/8 years is critical for fat mass index (FMI [kg/m2]) and fat free mass index (FFMI [kg/m2]) in early adolescence (10/11 years). Subsequently, exposures in periods identified as consistently critical were examined in depth using adjusted regression models; (3) Results: Life-course plots identified morning fat and carbohydrate (CHO) intake at 3/4 years and 7/8 years as well as changes in these intakes between 3/4 years and 7/8 years as potentially critical for FMI at 10/11 years. Adjusted regression models corroborated higher FMI values at 10/11 years among those who had consumed less fat (p = 0.01) and more CHO (p = 0.01) in the morning at 7/8 years as well as among those who had decreased their morning fat intake (p = 0.02) and increased their morning CHO intake (p = 0.05) between 3/4 years and 7/8 years; (4) Conclusion: During childhood, adherence to a low fat, high CHO intake in the morning may have unfavorable consequences for FMI in early adolescence. View Full-Text
Keywords: childhood; adolescence; morning intake; evening intake; macronutrient intake; fat mass childhood; adolescence; morning intake; evening intake; macronutrient intake; fat mass
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Diederichs, T.; Roßbach, S.; Herder, C.; Alexy, U.; Buyken, A.E. Relevance of Morning and Evening Energy and Macronutrient Intake during Childhood for Body Composition in Early Adolescence. Nutrients 2016, 8, 716.

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