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Special Issue "Polymeric Materials for Medical Applications"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Hicham Fenniri

Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nanotechnology for biomedical applications; nanoscale materials for drug delivery; cell therapeutics and regenerative medicine
Guest Editor
Assist. Prof. Dr. Sidi M. Bencherif

Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: polymer chemistry and characterization; new approaches to biomaterials design; injectable 3D polymer scaffolds; tissue engineering (e.g., liver, skin); controlled delivery of drugs/cells; biomaterial-based cancer immunotherapies

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the past few decades, utilization of materials has greatly impacted the advancement of modern medicine. Polymeric materials have been utilized to fulfill needs related to a variety of tissues and diseases involved in the human body. Biological, synthetic and hybrid polymers are used for multiple medical applications such as surgical sutures, implants, scaffolds in regenerative medicine, dental devices, hearing aids, biosensors, and drug delivery systems. In this Special Issue on “Polymeric Materials for Medical Applications”, the scope will be on new developments in polymeric materials with great potential for clinical translation. Recent advances in polymeric materials with desired physical, architectural, dimensional, chemical, biological, biomechanical and degradation properties to match the requirements of specific applications would be the highlight of this Issue.

Prof. Hicham Fenniri
Assist. Prof. Sidi A. Bencherif
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • polymers
  • biomaterials
  • bioconjugation
  • nano- and micro-materials
  • scaffolds
  • biodegradability
  • biocompatibility
  • regenerative medicine
  • tissue engineering
  • drug delivery
  • immunotherapy

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Development of Useful Biomaterial for Bone Tissue Engineering by Incorporating Nano-Copper-Zinc Alloy (nCuZn) in Chitosan/Gelatin/Nano-Hydroxyapatite (Ch/G/nHAp) Scaffold
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1177; doi:10.3390/ma10101177
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
Ceramic and metallic nanoparticles can improve the mechanical and biological properties of polymeric scaffolds for bone tissue engineering (BTE). In this work, nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) and nano-copper-zinc alloy (nCuZn) were added to a chitosan/gelatin (Ch/G) scaffold in order to investigate the effects on morphological,
[...] Read more.
Ceramic and metallic nanoparticles can improve the mechanical and biological properties of polymeric scaffolds for bone tissue engineering (BTE). In this work, nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) and nano-copper-zinc alloy (nCuZn) were added to a chitosan/gelatin (Ch/G) scaffold in order to investigate the effects on morphological, physical, and biocompatibility properties. Scaffolds were fabricated by a freeze-drying technique using different pre-freezing temperatures. Microstructure and morphology were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), glass transition (Tg) was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), cell growth was estimated by MTT assay, and biocompatibility was examined in vitro and in vivo by histochemistry analyses. Scaffolds and nanocomposite scaffolds presented interconnected pores, high porosity, and pore size appropriate for BTE. Tg of Ch/G scaffolds was diminished by nanoparticle inclusion. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) cells loaded in the Ch/G/nHAp/nCuZn nanocomposite scaffold showed suitable behavior, based on cell adhesion, cell growth, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as a marker of osteogenic differentiation, and histological in vitro cross sections. In vivo subcutaneous implant showed granulation tissue formation and new tissue infiltration into the scaffold. The favorable microstructure, coupled with the ability to integrate nanoparticles into the scaffold by freeze-drying technique and the biocompatibility, indicates the potential of this new material for applications in BTE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Medical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Biological Evaluation of Flexible Polyurethane/Poly l-Lactic Acid Composite Scaffold as a Potential Filler for Bone Regeneration
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1042; doi:10.3390/ma10091042
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 19 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
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Abstract
Degradable bone graft substitute for large-volume bone defects is a continuously developing field in orthopedics. With the advance in biomaterial in past decades, a wide range of new materials has been investigated for their potential in this application. When compared to common biopolymers
[...] Read more.
Degradable bone graft substitute for large-volume bone defects is a continuously developing field in orthopedics. With the advance in biomaterial in past decades, a wide range of new materials has been investigated for their potential in this application. When compared to common biopolymers within the field such as PLA or PCL, elastomers such as polyurethane offer some unique advantages in terms of flexibility. In cases of bone defect treatments, a flexible soft filler can help to establish an intimate contact with surrounding bones to provide a stable bone-material interface for cell proliferation and ingrowth of tissue. In this study, a porous filler based on segmented polyurethane incorporated with poly l-lactic acid was synthesized by a phase inverse salt leaching method. The filler was put through in vitro and in vivo tests to evaluate its potential in acting as a bone graft substitute for critical-sized bone defects. In vitro results indicated there was a major improvement in biological response, including cell attachment, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase expression for osteoblast-like cells when seeded on the composite material compared to unmodified polyurethane. In vivo evaluation on a critical-sized defect model of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit indicated there was bone ingrowth along the defect area with the introduction of the new filler. A tight interface formed between bone and filler, with osteogenic cells proliferating on the surface. The result suggested polyurethane/poly l-lactic acid composite is a material with the potential to act as a bone graft substitute for orthopedics application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Medical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle A Graphene-Based Flexible Pressure Sensor with Applications to Plantar Pressure Measurement and Gait Analysis
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1068; doi:10.3390/ma10091068
Received: 30 July 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
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Abstract
In the present study, we propose and develop a flexible pressure sensor based on the piezoresistive effect of multilayer graphene films on polyester textile. The pressure response results from the deformation of graphene conductive network structure and the changes in resistance. Here, we
[...] Read more.
In the present study, we propose and develop a flexible pressure sensor based on the piezoresistive effect of multilayer graphene films on polyester textile. The pressure response results from the deformation of graphene conductive network structure and the changes in resistance. Here, we show that the graphene pressure sensor can achieve a sensitivity value of 0.012 kPa 1 , the measurement range can be as high as 800 kPa, and the response time can reach to 50 ms. Subsequently, a stable in-shoe wireless plantar pressure measurement system is developed and dynamic pressure distribution is acquired in real-time. Overall, the graphene textile pressure sensor has the advantage of wide dynamic range, flexibility and comfort, which provides the high possibility for footwear evaluation, clinical gait analysis and pathological foot diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Medical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Characterization of Magnesium Ferrite-Based PCL/Aloe Vera Nanofibers
Materials 2017, 10(8), 937; doi:10.3390/ma10080937
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract
Composite nanofibers of biopolymers and inorganic materials have been widely explored as tissue engineering scaffolds because of their superior structural, mechanical and biological properties. In this study, magnesium ferrite (Mg-ferrite) based composite nanofibers were synthesized using an electrospinning technique. Mg-ferrite nanoparticles were first
[...] Read more.
Composite nanofibers of biopolymers and inorganic materials have been widely explored as tissue engineering scaffolds because of their superior structural, mechanical and biological properties. In this study, magnesium ferrite (Mg-ferrite) based composite nanofibers were synthesized using an electrospinning technique. Mg-ferrite nanoparticles were first synthesized using the reverse micelle method, and then blended in a mixture of polycaprolactone (PCL), a synthetic polymer, and Aloe vera, a natural polymer, to create magnetic nanofibers by electrospinning. The morphology, structural and magnetic properties, and cellular compatibility of the magnetic nanofibers were analyzed. Mg-ferrite/PCL/Aloe vera nanofibers showed good uniformity in fiber morphology, retained their structural integrity, and displayed magnetic strength. Experimental results, using cell viability assay and scanning electron microscopy imaging showed that magnetic nanofibers supported 3T3 cell viability. We believe that the new composite nanofibrous membranes developed in this study have the ability to mimic the physical structure and function of tissue extracellular matrix, as well as provide the magnetic and soluble metal ion attributes in the scaffolds with enhanced cell attachment, and thus improve tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Medical Applications)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Surface Modification of Polymer Substrates for Biomedical Applications
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1115; doi:10.3390/ma10101115
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
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Abstract
While polymers are widely utilized materials in the biomedical industry, they are rarely used in an unmodified state. Some kind of a surface treatment is often necessary to achieve properties suitable for specific applications. There are multiple methods of surface treatment, each with
[...] Read more.
While polymers are widely utilized materials in the biomedical industry, they are rarely used in an unmodified state. Some kind of a surface treatment is often necessary to achieve properties suitable for specific applications. There are multiple methods of surface treatment, each with their own pros and cons, such as plasma and laser treatment, UV lamp modification, etching, grafting, metallization, ion sputtering and others. An appropriate treatment can change the physico-chemical properties of the surface of a polymer in a way that makes it attractive for a variety of biological compounds, or, on the contrary, makes the polymer exhibit antibacterial or cytotoxic properties, thus making the polymer usable in a variety of biomedical applications. This review examines four popular methods of polymer surface modification: laser treatment, ion implantation, plasma treatment and nanoparticle grafting. Surface treatment-induced changes of the physico-chemical properties, morphology, chemical composition and biocompatibility of a variety of polymer substrates are studied. Relevant biological methods are used to determine the influence of various surface treatments and grafting processes on the biocompatibility of the new surfaces—mammalian cell adhesion and proliferation is studied as well as other potential applications of the surface-treated polymer substrates in the biomedical industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Medical Applications)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of Paper: Article
Title: Degradation and biocompatibility of PEA fibrils in the vitreous of normal and VEGF-treated rabbits
Author(s): Martina Kropp
Affiliation(s): Hopitaux universitaires de Geneve, Department of Ophthalmology, Geneve, Switzerland

Type of Paper: Review
Title: Biomaterials in tendon/muscle tissue engineering: current trends and challenges
Author: Cécile Legallais
Affiliation: Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, Laboratoire BioMécanique et BioIngénierie (BMBI), Compiegne, France

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