Special Issue "Antimicrobial Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 November 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Guogang Ren

School of Engineering and Technology, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK
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Phone: +44-1707-28-1075

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

After more than 20 years intensive investments, nano-materials as a foundation of nanotechnology have been developed widely in all sciences and engineering fields deeply rooted into applications. The theme of antimicrobial nanomaterials are defined by the particles with sizes smaller than that of 100 nm, and kill some of the bio-organism pathogens such as bacteria and viruses while inhibiting their biofilm formation. Antimicrobial nanoparticles are the truly cross-disciplinary theme, not just within the physics-materials-chemistry but also cross to biological, biomedical, healthcare and environmental sciences. Their applications also concerned the social and economic communities.

Some identified nano-materials or nano-scaled materials may have shown different levels of antimicrobial ability. However, more investigations have been focused on the nano-scaled materials. Hence, the "bulk with nano-structures" may be a virgin field for exploration considering the costs and toxicity issues that associated to the nanoparticles. A proof of nano-structures that kill or inhibit microbes is needed for a better solution for the antimicrobial as well as its resistance, the worldwide challenges from both bacterial and the viruses, by uses of a more "nature" and sustainable way to tackle the challenges.

The Special issue will present comprehensive research outlining progress on the antimicrobial nanomaterials and nanotechnology. We welcome papers (original research or reviews) from all disciplines where antimicrobial nanomaterials are of interest, with emphasis on the emerging bulk with nano-structures and antimicrobial mechanisms.

Dr. Guogang Ren
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antimicrobial nanomaterials
  • nano-structure
  • antimicrobial mechanisms

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Spectroscopic Characterization and Nanosafety of Ag-Modified Antibacterial Leather and Leatherette
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(8), 203; doi:10.3390/nano7080203
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 26 July 2017 / Published: 29 July 2017
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Abstract
The development of antibacterial coatings is of great interest from both industry and the consumer’s point of view. In this study, we characterized tanned leather and polyurethane leatherette, typically employed in the automotive and footwear industries, which were modified by photo-deposition of antibacterial
[...] Read more.
The development of antibacterial coatings is of great interest from both industry and the consumer’s point of view. In this study, we characterized tanned leather and polyurethane leatherette, typically employed in the automotive and footwear industries, which were modified by photo-deposition of antibacterial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Material surface chemical composition was investigated in detail by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The material’s antibacterial capability was checked against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, as representative microorganisms in cross transmissions. Due to the presence of silver in a nanostructured form, nanosafety issues were considered, as well. Ionic release in contact media, as well as whole nanoparticle release from treated materials, were quantitatively evaluated, thus providing specific information on potential product nanotoxicity, which was further investigated through cytocompatibility MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays, also after surface abrasion of the materials. The proved negligible nanoparticle release, as well as the controlled release of antibacterial ions, shed light on the materials’ potentialities, in terms of both high activity and safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Bulk Surfaces Coated with Triangular Silver Nanoplates: Antibacterial Action Based on Silver Release and Photo-Thermal Effect
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(1), 7; doi:10.3390/nano7010007
Received: 2 November 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 30 December 2016 / Published: 6 January 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A layer of silver nanoplates, specifically synthesized with the desired localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) features, was grafted on amino-functionalized bulk glass surfaces to impart a double antibacterial action: (i) the well-known, long-term antibacterial effect based on the release of Ag+;
[...] Read more.
A layer of silver nanoplates, specifically synthesized with the desired localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) features, was grafted on amino-functionalized bulk glass surfaces to impart a double antibacterial action: (i) the well-known, long-term antibacterial effect based on the release of Ag+; (ii) an “on demand” action which can be switched on by the use of photo-thermal properties of silver nano-objects. Irradiation of these samples with a laser having a wavelength falling into the so called “therapeutic window” of the near infrared region allows the reinforcement, in the timescale of minutes, of the classical antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles. We demonstrate how using the two actions allows for almost complete elimination of the population of two bacterial strains of representative Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle Visible Light-Responsive Platinum-Containing Titania Nanoparticle-Mediated Photocatalysis Induces Nucleotide Insertion, Deletion and Substitution Mutations
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(1), 2; doi:10.3390/nano7010002
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 8 December 2016 / Accepted: 22 December 2016 / Published: 28 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2583 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Conventional photocatalysts are primarily stimulated using ultraviolet (UV) light to elicit reactive oxygen species and have wide applications in environmental and energy fields, including self-cleaning surfaces and sterilization. Because UV illumination is hazardous to humans, visible light-responsive photocatalysts (VLRPs) were discovered and are
[...] Read more.
Conventional photocatalysts are primarily stimulated using ultraviolet (UV) light to elicit reactive oxygen species and have wide applications in environmental and energy fields, including self-cleaning surfaces and sterilization. Because UV illumination is hazardous to humans, visible light-responsive photocatalysts (VLRPs) were discovered and are now applied to increase photocatalysis. However, fundamental questions regarding the ability of VLRPs to trigger DNA mutations and the mutation types it elicits remain elusive. Here, through plasmid transformation and β-galactosidase α-complementation analyses, we observed that visible light-responsive platinum-containing titania (TiO2) nanoparticle (NP)-mediated photocatalysis considerably reduces the number of Escherichia coli transformants. This suggests that such photocatalytic reactions cause DNA damage. DNA sequencing results demonstrated that the DNA damage comprises three mutation types, namely nucleotide insertion, deletion and substitution; this is the first study to report the types of mutations occurring after photocatalysis by TiO2-VLRPs. Our results may facilitate the development and appropriate use of new-generation TiO2 NPs for biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Properties of Visible-Light-Responsive Carbon-Containing Titanium Dioxide Photocatalytic Nanoparticles against Anthrax
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(12), 237; doi:10.3390/nano6120237
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1860 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The bactericidal activity of conventional titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst is effective only on irradiation by ultraviolet light, which restricts the applications of TiO2 for use in living environments. Recently, carbon-containing TiO2 nanoparticles [TiO2(C) NP] were found to
[...] Read more.
The bactericidal activity of conventional titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst is effective only on irradiation by ultraviolet light, which restricts the applications of TiO2 for use in living environments. Recently, carbon-containing TiO2 nanoparticles [TiO2(C) NP] were found to be a visible-light-responsive photocatalyst (VLRP), which displayed significantly enhanced antibacterial properties under visible light illumination. However, whether TiO2(C) NPs exert antibacterial properties against Bacillus anthracis remains elusive. Here, we evaluated these VLRP NPs in the reduction of anthrax-induced pathogenesis. Bacteria-killing experiments indicated that a significantly higher proportion (40%–60%) of all tested Bacillus species, including B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis, were considerably eliminated by TiO2(C) NPs. Toxin inactivation analysis further suggested that the TiO2(C) NPs efficiently detoxify approximately 90% of tested anthrax lethal toxin, a major virulence factor of anthrax. Notably, macrophage clearance experiments further suggested that, even under suboptimal conditions without considerable bacterial killing, the TiO2(C) NP-mediated photocatalysis still exhibited antibacterial properties through the reduction of bacterial resistance against macrophage killing. Our results collectively suggested that TiO2(C) NP is a conceptually feasible anti-anthrax material, and the relevant technologies described herein may be useful in the development of new strategies against anthrax. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Activities of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles Using Marine Algae Ecklonia cava
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(12), 235; doi:10.3390/nano6120235
Received: 14 September 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 6 December 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4752 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has gained great interest as a simple and eco-friendly alternative to conventional chemical methods. In this study, AgNPs were synthesized by using extracts of marine algae Ecklonia cava as reducing and capping agents. The formation of AgNPs
[...] Read more.
Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has gained great interest as a simple and eco-friendly alternative to conventional chemical methods. In this study, AgNPs were synthesized by using extracts of marine algae Ecklonia cava as reducing and capping agents. The formation of AgNPs using aqueous extract of Ecklonia cava was confirmed visually by color change and their surface plasmon resonance peak at 418 nm, measured by UV-visible spectroscopy. The size, shape, and morphology of the biosynthesized AgNPs were observed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis. The biosynthesized AgNPs were nearly spherical in shape with an average size around 43 nm. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis confirmed the presence of phenolic compounds in the aqueous extract of Ecklonia cava as reducing and capping agents. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was also carried out to demonstrate the crystalline nature of the biosynthesized AgNPs. Antimicrobial results determined by an agar well diffusion assay demonstrated a significant antibacterial activity of the AgNPs against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Antioxidant results determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay revealed an efficient antioxidant activity of the biosynthesized AgNPs. The biosynthesized AgNPs also exhibited a strong apoptotic anticancer activity against human cervical cancer cells. Our findings demonstrate that aqueous extract of Ecklonia cava is an effective reducing agent for green synthesis of AgNPs with efficient antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticle and Chitin-Nanofiber Sheet Composites Caused by Oxidative Stress
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(10), 189; doi:10.3390/nano6100189
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 28 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
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Abstract
Size-controlled spherical silver nanoparticles (<10 nm) and chitin-nanofiber sheet composites (Ag NPs/CNFS) have previously been reported to have strong antimicrobial activity in vitro. Although Ag NPs/CNFS have strong antimicrobial activity, their cytotoxicity has not been investigated. This study was performed to evaluate the
[...] Read more.
Size-controlled spherical silver nanoparticles (<10 nm) and chitin-nanofiber sheet composites (Ag NPs/CNFS) have previously been reported to have strong antimicrobial activity in vitro. Although Ag NPs/CNFS have strong antimicrobial activity, their cytotoxicity has not been investigated. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of Ag NPs/CNFS on cytotoxicity for fibroblasts in vitro and healing delay of wound repair in vivo, focused on oxidative stress. Cytotoxic activities of Ag NPs/CNFS were investigated using a fibroblast cell proliferation assay, nitric oxide/nitrogen dioxide (NO/NO2) measurement of the cell lysates in vitro, inhibitory effects of Ag NPs/CNFS on healing-impaired wound repair using diabetic mice in vivo, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) immunohistochemical staining of the skin sections, and generation of carbonyl protein in the wound was performed to evaluate cytotoxicity with oxidative stress. Ag NPs/CNFS exhibited cytotoxicity for fibroblasts and a significant increase of total NO/NO2 levels in the cell lysates in vitro and increased levels of 8-OHdG and carbonyl proteins in vivo. Although wound repair in the continuously Ag NPs/CNFS-treated group was delayed, it could be mitigated by washing the covered wound with saline. Thus, Ag NPs/CNFS may become accepted as an anti-infectious wound dressing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle Zinc Oxide Nanorods-Decorated Graphene Nanoplatelets: A Promising Antimicrobial Agent against the Cariogenic Bacterium Streptococcus mutans
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(10), 179; doi:10.3390/nano6100179
Received: 10 August 2016 / Revised: 16 September 2016 / Accepted: 21 September 2016 / Published: 29 September 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3838 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanomaterials are revolutionizing the field of medicine to improve the quality of life due to the myriad of applications stemming from their unique properties, including the antimicrobial activity against pathogens. In this study, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties of a novel nanomaterial composed
[...] Read more.
Nanomaterials are revolutionizing the field of medicine to improve the quality of life due to the myriad of applications stemming from their unique properties, including the antimicrobial activity against pathogens. In this study, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties of a novel nanomaterial composed by zinc oxide nanorods-decorated graphene nanoplatelets (ZNGs) are investigated. ZNGs were produced by hydrothermal method and characterized through field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The antimicrobial activity of ZNGs was evaluated against Streptococcus mutans, the main bacteriological agent in the etiology of dental caries. Cell viability assay demonstrated that ZNGs exerted a strikingly high killing effect on S. mutans cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, FE-SEM analysis revealed relevant mechanical damages exerted by ZNGs at the cell surface of this dental pathogen rather than reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In addition, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements showed negligible zinc dissolution, demonstrating that zinc ion release in the suspension is not associated with the high cell mortality rate. Finally, our data indicated that also S. mutans biofilm formation was affected by the presence of graphene-zinc oxide (ZnO) based material, as witnessed by the safranin staining and growth curve analysis. Therefore, ZNGs can be a remarkable nanobactericide against one of the main dental pathogens. The potential applications in dental care and therapy are very promising. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of SiC/Ag/Cellulose Nanocomposite and Its Antibacterial Activity by Reactive Oxygen Species Generation
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(9), 171; doi:10.3390/nano6090171
Received: 13 June 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 18 August 2016 / Published: 13 September 2016
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Abstract
We describe the synthesis of nanocomposites, based on nanofibers of silicon carbide, silver nanoparticles, and cellulose. Silver nanoparticle synthesis was achieved with chemical reduction using hydrazine by adding two different surfactants to obtain a nanocomposite with silver nanoparticles of different diameters. Determination of
[...] Read more.
We describe the synthesis of nanocomposites, based on nanofibers of silicon carbide, silver nanoparticles, and cellulose. Silver nanoparticle synthesis was achieved with chemical reduction using hydrazine by adding two different surfactants to obtain a nanocomposite with silver nanoparticles of different diameters. Determination of antibacterial activity was based on respiration tests. Enzymatic analysis indicates oxidative stress, and viability testing was conducted using an epifluorescence microscope. Strong bactericidal activity of nanocomposites was found against bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus, which were used in the study as typical Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. It is assumed that reactive oxygen species generation was responsible for the observed antibacterial effect of the investigated materials. Due to the properties of silicon carbide nanofiber, the obtained nanocomposite may have potential use in technology related to water and air purification. Cellulose addition prevented silver nanoparticle release and probably enhanced bacterial adsorption onto aggregates of the nanocomposite material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Antimicrobial Polymers in the Nano-World
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(2), 48; doi:10.3390/nano7020048
Received: 6 November 2016 / Revised: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 24 January 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3878 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Infections are one of the main concerns of our era due to antibiotic-resistant infections and the increasing costs in the health-care sector. Within this context, antimicrobial polymers present a great alternative to combat these problems since their mechanisms of action differ from those
[...] Read more.
Infections are one of the main concerns of our era due to antibiotic-resistant infections and the increasing costs in the health-care sector. Within this context, antimicrobial polymers present a great alternative to combat these problems since their mechanisms of action differ from those of antibiotics. Therefore, the microorganisms’ resistance to these polymeric materials is avoided. Antimicrobial polymers are not only applied in the health-care sector, they are also used in many other areas. This review presents different strategies that combine nanoscience and nanotechnology in the polymer world to combat contaminations from bacteria, fungi or algae. It focuses on the most relevant areas of application of these materials, viz. health, food, agriculture, and textiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessReview Electrospun Nanofibres Containing Antimicrobial Plant Extracts
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(2), 42; doi:10.3390/nano7020042
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 15 February 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2613 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the last 10 years great research interest has been directed toward nanofibrous architectures produced by electrospinning bioactive plant extracts. The resulting structures possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activity, which are attractive for biomedical applications and food industry. This review describes the diverse
[...] Read more.
Over the last 10 years great research interest has been directed toward nanofibrous architectures produced by electrospinning bioactive plant extracts. The resulting structures possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activity, which are attractive for biomedical applications and food industry. This review describes the diverse approaches that have been developed to produce electrospun nanofibres that are able to deliver naturally-derived chemical compounds in a controlled way and to prevent their degradation. The efficacy of those composite nanofibres as wound dressings, scaffolds for tissue engineering, and active food packaging systems will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type: Review
Title: Antimicrobial polymers in the nano-world
Author: Marta Fernandez-Garcia
Affiliation: Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros (ICTP-CSIC), C/ Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006-Madrid, Spain
Abstract: Infections are one of the main concerns of our era due to the antibiotic-resistant infections and the costs increasing in the health-care sector. In this context polymers are presented as a great alternative to combat these problems since their mechanisms of action differ from the antibiotics. Therefore, the microorganisms’ resistance to these materials is avoided. This article presents the different strategies that combine the nanoscience and nanotechnology in the polymer world against contaminations from bacteria, fungi or algae.

Title: Micro-/Nanostructured PHB coatings as protective coatings for packaging papers
Authors: Vibhore Rastogi, Pieter Samyn
Abstract: This study reports on the development of bio-based hydrophobic coatings for packaging papers by following the two approaches. In first approach, structured polyhydroxybutyrate or PHB particles in micrometer range were prepared through the phase-separation technique and later transferred over the paper by dip-coating method. This approach only allowed the partial surface coverage of structured PHB particles over the papers resulted in the development of second approach. In second approach, two step dip-coating coating formulation comprises PHB as coating pigment, nanofibrillated cellulose or NFC as binder, and plant wax as hydrophobizing agent. A synthesis procedure for the formulation of PHB particles in aqueous environment has first been optimized. In the next step, filter paper was dip-coated in PHB/NFC aqueous suspensions with different concentrations of NFC and the latter was additionally sized with wax solution, to have a final water contact angle of 152°. Morphological characterizations on coated papers were carried out by SEM and 3D-laser profilometry to visualize the effect of different NFC concentrations as binder. It was observed that the fibrillar cellulose network is playing a key role in the retention of PHB particles at the paper surface. This effect was further confirmed by chemical analysis of coated papers by Raman mapping. The coated papers can serve as protective layers with improved hydrophobicity for food packaging applications.

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