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Nanomaterials 2016, 6(12), 237; doi:10.3390/nano6120237

Antibacterial Properties of Visible-Light-Responsive Carbon-Containing Titanium Dioxide Photocatalytic Nanoparticles against Anthrax

1
Department of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien 97004, Taiwan
2
Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan
3
Institute of Preventive Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 23742, Taiwan
4
Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas Nann
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology)
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Abstract

The bactericidal activity of conventional titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst is effective only on irradiation by ultraviolet light, which restricts the applications of TiO2 for use in living environments. Recently, carbon-containing TiO2 nanoparticles [TiO2(C) NP] were found to be a visible-light-responsive photocatalyst (VLRP), which displayed significantly enhanced antibacterial properties under visible light illumination. However, whether TiO2(C) NPs exert antibacterial properties against Bacillus anthracis remains elusive. Here, we evaluated these VLRP NPs in the reduction of anthrax-induced pathogenesis. Bacteria-killing experiments indicated that a significantly higher proportion (40%–60%) of all tested Bacillus species, including B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis, were considerably eliminated by TiO2(C) NPs. Toxin inactivation analysis further suggested that the TiO2(C) NPs efficiently detoxify approximately 90% of tested anthrax lethal toxin, a major virulence factor of anthrax. Notably, macrophage clearance experiments further suggested that, even under suboptimal conditions without considerable bacterial killing, the TiO2(C) NP-mediated photocatalysis still exhibited antibacterial properties through the reduction of bacterial resistance against macrophage killing. Our results collectively suggested that TiO2(C) NP is a conceptually feasible anti-anthrax material, and the relevant technologies described herein may be useful in the development of new strategies against anthrax. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthrax spore; antibacterial agents; TiO2; carbon-containing TiO2; visible light responsive photocatalyst anthrax spore; antibacterial agents; TiO2; carbon-containing TiO2; visible light responsive photocatalyst
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, D.-S.; Kau, J.-H.; Huang, H.-H.; Tseng, Y.-H.; Wu, W.-S.; Chang, H.-H. Antibacterial Properties of Visible-Light-Responsive Carbon-Containing Titanium Dioxide Photocatalytic Nanoparticles against Anthrax. Nanomaterials 2016, 6, 237.

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