Special Issue "Advancements in Nanotoxicology"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Robert Tanguay

Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-4003, USA
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +1 541 737 0497
Interests: developmental toxicity; high throughput screening; nanotoxicology; zebrafish; gene expression, miRNAs, and systems toxicology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This issue is a continuation of the previous successful special issue "Nanotoxicology".

Nanomaterial science continues to advance with the generation of more complex nanostructures with exciting potential applications. There have been parallel advances in the biological sciences aimed at evaluating the biocompatibility of these novel nanoparticles. Over recent years, we have realized that evaluating nanoparticles and biological interactions is quite complex because local environmental conditions influences particle behavior, and thus biocompatibility. In order to advance the development of safer high performing products, we need to understand the structural basis for these dynamic behaviors.

In this Special Issue, we are especially interested in manuscripts that advance the understanding of the specific nanomaterials attributes that govern or influence nanomaterial behavior and biocompatibility. This Issue invites manuscripts ranging from understanding dynamic behaviors of particles in aqueous environment, cellular toxicity, whole animal toxicity, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, genotoxicity, and population scale effects. Manuscripts that define specific biological responses at the organismal, gene expression, proteomic, and genetic levels are also invited.

Prof. Dr. Robert Tanguay
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.


Keywords

  • biocompatibility
  • nanotoxicology
  • in vivo
  • in vitro
  • predictive
  • nanotoxicity
  • safety assessment
  • nanoparticle characterization

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (15 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-15
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Impact of Carbon Nano-Onions on Hydra vulgaris as a Model Organism for Nanoecotoxicology
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(3), 1331-1350; doi:10.3390/nano5031331
Received: 10 June 2015 / Revised: 5 August 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 13 August 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3338 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The toxicological effects of pristine and chemically modified carbon nano-onions (CNOs) on the development of the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris were investigated in order to elucidate the ecotoxicological effects of CNOs. Chemical modifications of the CNOs were accomplished by surface functionalization with benzoic
[...] Read more.
The toxicological effects of pristine and chemically modified carbon nano-onions (CNOs) on the development of the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris were investigated in order to elucidate the ecotoxicological effects of CNOs. Chemical modifications of the CNOs were accomplished by surface functionalization with benzoic acid, pyridine and pyridinium moieties. thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the covalent surface functionalization of CNOs. Hydra specimens were exposed to the carbon nanomaterials by prolonged incubation within their medium. Uptake was monitored by optical microscopy, and the toxicological effects of the CNOs on Hydra behavior, morphology, as well as the long-term effects on the development and reproductive capability were examined. The obtained data revealed the absence of adverse effects of CNOs (in the range 0.05–0.1 mg/L) in vivo at the whole animal level. Together with previously performed in vitro toxicological analyses, our findings indicate the biosafety of CNOs and the feasibility of employing them as materials for biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Nanotoxicology)
Figures

Open AccessArticle An Investigation of the Cytotoxicity and Caspase-Mediated Apoptotic Effect of Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Eclipta prostrata on Human Liver Carcinoma Cells
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(3), 1317-1330; doi:10.3390/nano5031317
Received: 25 June 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 12 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1024 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and sustained focus is on the discovery and development of newer and better tolerated anticancer drugs, especially from plants. In the present study, a simple, eco-friendly, and inexpensive approach was followed for the synthesis of
[...] Read more.
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and sustained focus is on the discovery and development of newer and better tolerated anticancer drugs, especially from plants. In the present study, a simple, eco-friendly, and inexpensive approach was followed for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using the aqueous leaf extract of Eclipta prostrata. The synthesized ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and Selected area (electron) diffraction (SAED). The HRTEM images confirmed the presence of triangle, radial, hexagonal, rod, and rectangle, shaped with an average size of 29 ± 1.3 nm. The functional groups for synthesized ZnO NPs were 3852 cm−1 for H-H weak peak, 3138 cm−1 for aromatic C-H extend, and 1648 cm−1 for Aromatic ring stretch. The 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT), caspase and DNA fragmentation assays were carried out using various concentrations of ZnO NPs ranging from 1 to 100 mg/mL. The synthesized ZnO NPs showed dose dependent cytopathic effects in the Hep-G2 cell line. At 100 mg/mL concentration, the synthesized ZnO NPs exhibited significant cytotoxic effects and the apoptotic features were confirmed through caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation assays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Nanotoxicology)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Modeling In Vivo Interactions of Engineered Nanoparticles in the Pulmonary Alveolar Lining Fluid
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(3), 1223-1249; doi:10.3390/nano5031223
Received: 20 April 2015 / Revised: 6 July 2015 / Accepted: 9 July 2015 / Published: 22 July 2015
PDF Full-text (1937 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Increasing use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in consumer products may result in widespread human inhalation exposures. Due to their high surface area per unit mass, inhaled ENMs interact with multiple components of the pulmonary system, and these interactions affect their ultimate fate in
[...] Read more.
Increasing use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in consumer products may result in widespread human inhalation exposures. Due to their high surface area per unit mass, inhaled ENMs interact with multiple components of the pulmonary system, and these interactions affect their ultimate fate in the body. Modeling of ENM transport and clearance in vivo has traditionally treated tissues as well-mixed compartments, without consideration of nanoscale interaction and transformation mechanisms. ENM agglomeration, dissolution and transport, along with adsorption of biomolecules, such as surfactant lipids and proteins, cause irreversible changes to ENM morphology and surface properties. The model presented in this article quantifies ENM transformation and transport in the alveolar air to liquid interface and estimates eventual alveolar cell dosimetry. This formulation brings together established concepts from colloidal and surface science, physics, and biochemistry to provide a stochastic framework capable of capturing essential in vivo processes in the pulmonary alveolar lining layer. The model has been implemented for in vitro solutions with parameters estimated from relevant published in vitro measurements and has been extended here to in vivo systems simulating human inhalation exposures. Applications are presented for four different ENMs, and relevant kinetic rates are estimated, demonstrating an approach for improving human in vivo pulmonary dosimetry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Nanotoxicology)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Nano-Sized Secondary Organic Aerosol of Diesel Engine Exhaust Origin Impairs Olfactory-Based Spatial Learning Performance in Preweaning Mice
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(3), 1147-1162; doi:10.3390/nano5031147
Received: 21 April 2015 / Revised: 19 June 2015 / Accepted: 25 June 2015 / Published: 30 June 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (781 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aims of our present study were to establish a novel olfactory-based spatial learning test and to examine the effects of exposure to nano-sized diesel exhaust-origin secondary organic aerosol (SOA), a model environmental pollutant, on the learning performance in preweaning mice. Pregnant BALB/c
[...] Read more.
The aims of our present study were to establish a novel olfactory-based spatial learning test and to examine the effects of exposure to nano-sized diesel exhaust-origin secondary organic aerosol (SOA), a model environmental pollutant, on the learning performance in preweaning mice. Pregnant BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air, diesel exhaust (DE), or DE-origin SOA (DE-SOA) from gestational day 14 to postnatal day (PND) 10 in exposure chambers. On PND 11, the preweaning mice were examined by the olfactory-based spatial learning test. After completion of the spatial learning test, the hippocampus from each mouse was removed and examined for the expressions of neurological and immunological markers using real-time RT-PCR. In the test phase of the study, the mice exposed to DE or DE-SOA took a longer time to reach the target as compared to the control mice. The expression levels of neurological markers such as the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits NR1 and NR2B, and of immunological markers such as TNF-α, COX2, and Iba1 were significantly increased in the hippocampi of the DE-SOA-exposed preweaning mice as compared to the control mice. Our results indicate that DE-SOA exposure in utero and in the neonatal period may affect the olfactory-based spatial learning behavior in preweaning mice by modulating the expressions of memory function–related pathway genes and inflammatory markers in the hippocampus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Nanotoxicology)
Open AccessArticle Examination of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Uptake and Toxicity from Dietary Exposure: Tracking Movement and Impacts in the Gastrointestinal System
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(2), 1066-1086; doi:10.3390/nano5021066
Received: 5 May 2015 / Accepted: 3 June 2015 / Published: 12 June 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3933 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous studies indicate that exposure of fish to pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by oral gavage, causes no overt toxicity, and no appreciable absorption has been observed. However, in the environment, SWCNTs are likely to be present in dietary sources, which may result
[...] Read more.
Previous studies indicate that exposure of fish to pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by oral gavage, causes no overt toxicity, and no appreciable absorption has been observed. However, in the environment, SWCNTs are likely to be present in dietary sources, which may result in differential impacts on uptake and biological effects. Additionally, the potential of these materials to sorb nutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids) while present in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract may lead to nutrient depletion conditions that impact processes such as growth and reproduction. To test this phenomenon, fathead minnows were fed a commercial diet either with or without SWCNTs for 96 h. Tracking and quantification of SWCNTs using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging during feeding studies showed the presence of food does not facilitate transport of SWCNTs across the intestinal epithelia. Targeting genes shown to be responsive to nutrient depletion (peptide transporters, peptide hormones, and lipases) indicated that pept2, a peptide transporter, and cck, a peptide hormone, showed differential mRNA expression by 96 h, a response that may be indicative of nutrient limitation. The results of the current study increase our understanding of the movement of SWCNTs through the GI tract, while the changes in nutrient processing genes highlight a novel mechanism of sublethal toxicity in aquatic organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Nanotoxicology)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Toxicity and Biokinetics of Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(2), 835-850; doi:10.3390/nano5020835
Received: 9 April 2015 / Revised: 7 May 2015 / Accepted: 13 May 2015 / Published: 21 May 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) have promising potential for diverse biological application, but it has not been completely determined whether Au-NP has potential toxicity in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, toxicity of Au-NP was evaluated in human intestinal cells as well
[...] Read more.
Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) have promising potential for diverse biological application, but it has not been completely determined whether Au-NP has potential toxicity in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, toxicity of Au-NP was evaluated in human intestinal cells as well as in rats after 14-day repeated oral administration. Biokinetic study was also performed to assess oral absorption and tissue distribution. The results demonstrated that Au-NP did not cause cytotoxic effects on cells after 24 h exposure in terms of inhibition of cell proliferation, membrane damage, and oxidative stress. However, when a small number of cells were exposed to Au-NP for seven days, colony forming ability remarkably decreased by Au-NP treatment, suggesting its potential toxicity after long-term exposure at high concentration. Biokinetic study revealed that Au-NP slowly entered the blood stream and slightly accumulated only in kidney after oral administration to rats. Whereas, orally administered Au ions were rapidly absorbed, and then distributed in kidney, liver, lung, and spleen at high levels, suggesting that the biological fate of Au-NP is primarily in nanoparticulate form, not in ionic Au. Fourteen-day repeated oral toxicity evaluation showed that Au-NP did not cause severe toxicity in rats based on histopathological, hematological, and serum biochemical analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Nanotoxicology)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Modeling the Dispersibility of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Organic Solvents by Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Approach
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(2), 778-791; doi:10.3390/nano5020778
Received: 12 February 2015 / Revised: 29 April 2015 / Accepted: 4 May 2015 / Published: 12 May 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (374 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The knowledge of physico-chemical properties of carbon nanotubes, including behavior in organic solvents is very important for design, manufacturing and utilizing of their counterparts with improved properties. In the present study a quantitative structure-activity/property relationship (QSAR/QSPR) approach was applied to predict the dispersibility
[...] Read more.
The knowledge of physico-chemical properties of carbon nanotubes, including behavior in organic solvents is very important for design, manufacturing and utilizing of their counterparts with improved properties. In the present study a quantitative structure-activity/property relationship (QSAR/QSPR) approach was applied to predict the dispersibility of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in various organic solvents. A number of additive descriptors and quantum-chemical descriptors were calculated and utilized to build QSAR models. The best predictability is shown by a 4-variable model. The model showed statistically good results (R2training = 0.797, Q2 = 0.665, R2test = 0.807), with high internal and external correlation coefficients. Presence of the X0Av descriptor and its negative term suggest that small size solvents have better SWCNTs solubility. Mass weighted descriptor ATS6m also indicates that heavier solvents (and small in size) most probably are better solvents for SWCNTs. The presence of the Dipole Z descriptor indicates that higher polarizability of the solvent molecule increases the solubility. The developed model and contributed descriptors can help to understand the mechanism of the dispersion process and predictorganic solvents that improve the dispersibility of SWNTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Nanotoxicology)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Gene Expression, Protein Function and Pathways of Arabidopsis thaliana Responding to Silver Nanoparticles in Comparison to Silver Ions, Cold, Salt, Drought, and Heat
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(2), 436-467; doi:10.3390/nano5020436
Received: 25 February 2015 / Revised: 18 March 2015 / Accepted: 23 March 2015 / Published: 27 March 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1702 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used in industry due to their unique physical and chemical properties. However, AgNPs have caused environmental concerns. To understand the risks of AgNPs, Arabidopsis microarray data for AgNP, Ag+, cold, salt, heat and drought stresses
[...] Read more.
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used in industry due to their unique physical and chemical properties. However, AgNPs have caused environmental concerns. To understand the risks of AgNPs, Arabidopsis microarray data for AgNP, Ag+, cold, salt, heat and drought stresses were analyzed. Up- and down-regulated genes of more than two-fold expression change were compared, while the encoded proteins of shared and unique genes between stresses were subjected to differential enrichment analyses. AgNPs affected the fewest genes (575) in the Arabidopsis genome, followed by Ag+ (1010), heat (1374), drought (1435), salt (4133) and cold (6536). More genes were up-regulated than down-regulated in AgNPs and Ag+ (438 and 780, respectively) while cold down-regulated the most genes (4022). Responses to AgNPs were more similar to those of Ag+ (464 shared genes), cold (202), and salt (163) than to drought (50) or heat (30); the genes in the first four stresses were enriched with 32 PFAM domains and 44 InterPro protein classes. Moreover, 111 genes were unique in AgNPs and they were enriched in three biological functions: response to fungal infection, anion transport, and cell wall/plasma membrane related. Despite shared similarity to Ag+, cold and salt stresses, AgNPs are a new stressor to Arabidopsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Nanotoxicology)
Figures

Open AccessCommunication Removal of Radioactive Cesium Using Prussian Blue Magnetic Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2014, 4(4), 894-901; doi:10.3390/nano4040894
Received: 14 October 2014 / Revised: 3 November 2014 / Accepted: 21 November 2014 / Published: 28 November 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Radioactive cesium (137Cs) has inevitably become a human concern due to exposure from nuclear power plants and nuclear accident releases. Many efforts have been focused on removing cesium and the remediation of the contaminated environment. In this study, we elucidated the
[...] Read more.
Radioactive cesium (137Cs) has inevitably become a human concern due to exposure from nuclear power plants and nuclear accident releases. Many efforts have been focused on removing cesium and the remediation of the contaminated environment. In this study, we elucidated the ability of Prussian blue-coated magnetic nanoparticles to eliminate cesium from radioactive contaminated waste. Thus, the obtained Prussian blue-coated magnetic nanoparticles were then characterized and examined for their physical and radioactive cesium adsorption properties. This Prussian blue-coated magnetic nanoparticle-based cesium magnetic sorbent can offer great potential for use in in situ remediation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Nanotoxicology)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Role of Physicochemical Properties in Nanoparticle Toxicity
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(3), 1351-1365; doi:10.3390/nano5031351
Received: 11 May 2015 / Revised: 11 August 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 19 August 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (652 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the recent rapid growth of technological comprehension in nanoscience, researchers have aimed to adapt this knowledge to various research fields within engineering and applied science. Dramatic advances in nanomaterials marked a new epoch in biomedical engineering with the expectation that they would
[...] Read more.
With the recent rapid growth of technological comprehension in nanoscience, researchers have aimed to adapt this knowledge to various research fields within engineering and applied science. Dramatic advances in nanomaterials marked a new epoch in biomedical engineering with the expectation that they would have huge contributions to healthcare. However, several questions regarding their safety and toxicity have arisen due to numerous novel properties. Here, recent studies of nanomaterial toxicology will be reviewed from several physiochemical perspectives. A variety of physiochemical properties such as size distribution, electrostatics, surface area, general morphology and aggregation may significantly affect physiological interactions between nanomaterials and target biological areas. Accordingly, it is very important to finely tune these properties in order to safely fulfill a bio-user’s purpose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Nanotoxicology)
Open AccessReview Neural Cell Chip Based Electrochemical Detection of Nanotoxicity
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(3), 1181-1199; doi:10.3390/nano5031181
Received: 21 May 2015 / Revised: 26 June 2015 / Accepted: 29 June 2015 / Published: 2 July 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2924 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Development of a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective method for toxicity assessment of commonly used nanoparticles is urgently needed for the sustainable development of nanotechnology. A neural cell with high sensitivity and conductivity has become a potential candidate for a cell chip to investigate
[...] Read more.
Development of a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective method for toxicity assessment of commonly used nanoparticles is urgently needed for the sustainable development of nanotechnology. A neural cell with high sensitivity and conductivity has become a potential candidate for a cell chip to investigate toxicity of environmental influences. A neural cell immobilized on a conductive surface has become a potential tool for the assessment of nanotoxicity based on electrochemical methods. The effective electrochemical monitoring largely depends on the adequate attachment of a neural cell on the chip surfaces. Recently, establishment of integrin receptor specific ligand molecules arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) or its several modifications RGD-Multi Armed Peptide terminated with cysteine (RGD-MAP-C), C(RGD)4 ensure farm attachment of neural cell on the electrode surfaces either in their two dimensional (dot) or three dimensional (rod or pillar) like nano-scale arrangement. A three dimensional RGD modified electrode surface has been proven to be more suitable for cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation as well as electrochemical measurement. This review discusses fabrication as well as electrochemical measurements of neural cell chip with particular emphasis on their use for nanotoxicity assessments sequentially since inception to date. Successful monitoring of quantum dot (QD), graphene oxide (GO) and cosmetic compound toxicity using the newly developed neural cell chip were discussed here as a case study. This review recommended that a neural cell chip established on a nanostructured ligand modified conductive surface can be a potential tool for the toxicity assessments of newly developed nanomaterials prior to their use on biology or biomedical technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Nanotoxicology)
Figures

Open AccessReview Nanotoxicity: An Interplay of Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Cell Death
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(3), 1163-1180; doi:10.3390/nano5031163
Received: 15 May 2015 / Revised: 16 June 2015 / Accepted: 23 June 2015 / Published: 30 June 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanoparticles are emerging as a useful tool for a wide variety of biomedical, consumer and instrumental applications that include drug delivery systems, biosensors and environmental sensors. In particular, nanoparticles have been shown to offer greater specificity with enhanced bioavailability and less detrimental side
[...] Read more.
Nanoparticles are emerging as a useful tool for a wide variety of biomedical, consumer and instrumental applications that include drug delivery systems, biosensors and environmental sensors. In particular, nanoparticles have been shown to offer greater specificity with enhanced bioavailability and less detrimental side effects as compared to the existing conventional therapies in nanomedicine. Hence, bionanotechnology has been receiving immense attention in recent years. However, despite the extensive use of nanoparticles today, there is still a limited understanding of nanoparticle-mediated toxicity. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that nanoparticles are closely associated with toxicity by increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and/or the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. The homeostatic redox state of the host becomes disrupted upon ROS induction by nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are also known to up-regulate the transcription of various pro-inflammatory genes, including tumor necrosis factor-α and IL (interleukins)-1, IL-6 and IL-8, by activating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling. These sequential molecular and cellular events are known to cause oxidative stress, followed by severe cellular genotoxicity and then programmed cell death. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying nanotoxicity are not fully understood. This lack of knowledge is a significant impediment in the use of nanoparticles in vivo. In this review, we will provide an assessment of signaling pathways that are involved in the nanoparticle- induced oxidative stress and propose possible strategies to circumvent nanotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Nanotoxicology)
Figures

Open AccessReview Antitumor Activities of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(2), 1004-1021; doi:10.3390/nano5021004
Received: 4 May 2015 / Revised: 2 June 2015 / Accepted: 4 June 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (2364 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanoparticles have received much attention recently due to their use in cancer therapy. Studies have shown that different metal oxide nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. In some cases, such anticancer activity has been demonstrated to hold for
[...] Read more.
Nanoparticles have received much attention recently due to their use in cancer therapy. Studies have shown that different metal oxide nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. In some cases, such anticancer activity has been demonstrated to hold for the nanoparticle alone or in combination with different therapies, such as photocatalytic therapy or some anticancer drugs. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have been shown to have this activity alone or when loaded with an anticancer drug, such as doxorubicin. Other nanoparticles that show cytotoxic effects on cancer cells include cobalt oxide, iron oxide and copper oxide. The antitumor mechanism could work through the generation of reactive oxygen species or apoptosis and necrosis, among other possibilities. Here, we review the most significant antitumor results obtained with different metal oxide nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Nanotoxicology)
Figures

Open AccessReview Penetration and Toxicity of Nanomaterials in Higher Plants
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(2), 851-873; doi:10.3390/nano5020851
Received: 1 April 2015 / Revised: 20 May 2015 / Accepted: 21 May 2015 / Published: 26 May 2015
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanomaterials (NMs) comprise either inorganic particles consisting of metals, oxides, and salts that exist in nature and may be also produced in the laboratory, or organic particles originating only from the laboratory, having at least one dimension between 1 and 100 nm in
[...] Read more.
Nanomaterials (NMs) comprise either inorganic particles consisting of metals, oxides, and salts that exist in nature and may be also produced in the laboratory, or organic particles originating only from the laboratory, having at least one dimension between 1 and 100 nm in size. According to shape, size, surface area, and charge, NMs have different mechanical, chemical, electrical, and optical properties that make them suitable for technological and biomedical applications and thus they are being increasingly produced and modified. Despite their beneficial potential, their use may be hazardous to health owing to the capacity to enter the animal and plant body and interact with cells. Studies on NMs involve technologists, biologists, physicists, chemists, and ecologists, so there are numerous reports that are significantly raising the level of knowledge, especially in the field of nanotechnology; however, many aspects concerning nanobiology remain undiscovered, including the interactions with plant biomolecules. In this review we examine current knowledge on the ways in which NMs penetrate plant organs and interact with cells, with the aim of shedding light on the reactivity of NMs and toxicity to plants. These points are discussed critically to adjust the balance with regard to the risk to the health of the plants as well as providing some suggestions for new studies on this topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Nanotoxicology)
Figures

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessCommentary Dynamism of Stimuli-Responsive Nanohybrids: Environmental Implications
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(2), 1102-1123; doi:10.3390/nano5021102
Received: 30 April 2015 / Accepted: 4 June 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6955 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanomaterial science and design have shifted from generating single passive nanoparticles to more complex and adaptive multi-component nanohybrids. These adaptive nanohybrids (ANHs) are designed to simultaneously perform multiple functions, while actively responding to the surrounding environment. ANHs are engineered for use as drug
[...] Read more.
Nanomaterial science and design have shifted from generating single passive nanoparticles to more complex and adaptive multi-component nanohybrids. These adaptive nanohybrids (ANHs) are designed to simultaneously perform multiple functions, while actively responding to the surrounding environment. ANHs are engineered for use as drug delivery carriers, in tissue-engineered templates and scaffolds, adaptive clothing, smart surface coatings, electrical switches and in platforms for diversified functional applications. Such ANHs are composed of carbonaceous, metallic or polymeric materials with stimuli-responsive soft-layer coatings that enable them to perform such switchable functions. Since ANHs are engineered to dynamically transform under different exposure environments, evaluating their environmental behavior will likely require new approaches. Literature on polymer science has established a knowledge core on stimuli-responsive materials. However, translation of such knowledge to environmental health and safety (EHS) of these ANHs has not yet been realized. It is critical to investigate and categorize the potential hazards of ANHs, because exposure in an unintended or shifting environment could present uncertainty in EHS. This article presents a perspective on EHS evaluation of ANHs, proposes a principle to facilitate their identification for environmental evaluation, outlines a stimuli-based classification for ANHs and discusses emerging properties and dynamic aspects for systematic EHS evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Nanotoxicology)
Figures

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Nanomaterials Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
nanomaterials@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Nanomaterials
Back to Top