The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these
manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers
submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Biological Effect of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Skeletonema costatum and Prorocentrum donghaiense in seawaters
Authors: Fangfang Li, Jiangtao Wang *, Liju Tan
Affilication: Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, 238 Songling Road, Qingdao 266100, China; E-Mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been used in a variety of industrial areas as a kinds of new nanometer materials. Algal growth test was developed to determine the biological effect of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on Skeletonema costatum and Prorocentrum donghaiense. The results showed that SWNTs stimulated the growth of S. costatum within 72 h and 24 h as theirs concentrations were smaller than 0.5 mg/L and 10 mg/L respectively, While the growth of S. costatum was inhibited within 48 h and 96 h as theirs concentrations were higher than 10 mg/L and 0.5mg/L respectively (p＜0.05). The concentrations of chlorophyll were the same as the density of phytoplankton cells. The growth of P. donghaiense was inhibited as SWNTs concentrations were higher than 100 mg/L within 72 h, while SWNTs promoted the growth of P. donghaiense within 48 h after SWNTs were added as their concentrations were smaller than 5 mg/L（p＜0.05). The results of chlorophyll were similar to the density of P. donghaiense cells. The roles of SWNTs on the growth of algae were suggested to be associated with the active of some enzymes and the physical properties, such as agglomeration and shading.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Comparative Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Toxicity Using Embryonic Zebrafish
Authors: Leah C. Wehmas1, Catherine Anders2, Jordan Chess2, Alex Punnoose2, Cliff B. Pereira3, Juliet A. Greenwood4 and Robert L. Tanguay1, *
Affilications: 1 Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, 1007 Agriculture & Life Sciences Building, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
2 Department of Physics and the Interdisciplinary graduate program in Biomolecular Sciences, Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725, USA
3 Department of Statistics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
4 Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Environmental Health Sciences Center, 2011 Agricultural & Life Sciences Building, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
Abstract: Engineered metal oxide nanoparticles (MO NPs) are finding increasing utility in the medical field as anticancer agents. Before validation of in vivo anticancer efficacy can occur, a better understanding of the physicochemical properties contributing to whole-animal nanomaterial toxicity is required. We compared the in vivo toxicity of four widely used semiconductor MO NPs: zinc oxide (ZnO), titanium dioxide, cerium dioxide and tin dioxide prepared in pure water and in synthetic seawater using a five-day embryonic zebrafish assay. We hypothesized that the toxicity of these engineered MO NPs would depend on their physicochemical properties. Our experimental results suggest that hydrodynamic size and charge may not be as important as elemental composition and dissolution potential in dictating MO NP toxicity. Only ZnO NP caused significant adverse effects, and only when prepared in pure water (LC50 = 6.39 mg/L). ZnO NP toxicity was life stage dependent. The 24 h toxicity increased greatly (at least 14.7 fold) when zebrafish exposures started at the larval life stage compared to an embryonic exposure. Quantification of ZnO NP dissolution revealed high levels of Zn ion (40-89% of total sample). Exposure to Zn ion equivalents revealed dissolved Zn was the primary cause of toxicity.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Removal of Radioactive Cesium Using Prussian Blue Magnetic Nanoparticles
Authors: Sung-Chan Jang 1,2, Sang-Bum Hong 1, Hee-Man Yang 1, Kune-Woo Lee 1, Jei-Kwon Moon 1, Bum-Kyoung Seo 1,*, Yun Suk Huh 2,* and Changhyun Roh 1,3,*
Affilications: 1 Decontamination and Decommissioning Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 989-111 Daedukdaero Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353, Korea
2 Department of Biological Engineering, Biohybrid Systems Research Center (BSRC), Inha University, Incheon 402-751, Korea
3 Biotechnology Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute (ARTI), Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 1266, Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185, Korea
Abstract: Radioactive cesium (137Cs) has inevitably become a human concern due to exposure from nuclear power plants and nuclear accident releases. Many efforts have been focused on removing cesium and the remediation of the contaminated environment. In this study, we elucidated the ability of Prussian blue-coated magnetic nanoparticles to eliminate cesium from radioactive contaminated waste. Thus, the obtained Prussian blue-coated magnetic nanoparticles were then characterized and examined for their physical and radioactive cesium adsorption properties. This Prussian blue-coated magnetic nanoparticle-based cesium magnetic sorbent can offer great potential for use in in situ remediation.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Gene Expression, Protein Function and Pathways of Arabidopsis thaliana Responding to Silver Nanoparticles in Comparison to Silver Ions, Cold, Salt, Drought, and Heat
Author: Jane Geisler-Lee
Affilication: Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, 1125 Lincoln Drive, MC6509, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA
Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), due to their unique physical and chemical properties, have been widely used in different sectors of industry. Their widespread usage has caused environmental concerns. However, the similarity in the toxicity assays and expression analysis between AgNPs and silver ions (Ag+) may have led to the conclusion that both could pose the similar environmental risks to plants. In order to further understand the differences between AgNPs and Ag+, a comprehensive analysis was performed using six sets of Arabidopsis microarray data (AgNPs, Ag+, cold, drought, heat and salt). Up-regulated and down-regulated as well as shared and unique genes were categorized according to stresses. The encoded proteins of these genes were also subjected to protein protein interaction network analysis, and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analyses in Pfam domain, InterPro protein class and KEGG pathway. The stress of AgNPs was more similar to the stresses of Ag+, cold and salt than to heat and drought in Arabidopsis. However, AgNPs stress encompassed three unique features (from the other five stresses): response to fungus (i.e. enriched beta-1,3-endoglucanase domain), anion transport, and cell wall/plasma membrane related. The similarity of AgNPs (abiotic stress) to the response to fungus (biotic stress) suggests physical/mechanical damage due to AgNPs’ nano size. Anion transport implies the differentiation of AgNPs stress from Ag+ and Na+ (from salt) stresses. All the 60 AgNPs-specific genes could be sorted into two categories, protection from oxidative burst and involvement in cell wall and/or plasma membrane. In sum, despite the shared similarity in gene expression and metabolic pathways to the three abiotic stresses (Ag+, cold, salt), AgNPs not only are a new abiotic stressor but also pose different toxicity risks to Arabidopsis plants.
Keywords: Silver nanotoxicity, silver nanoparticles vs. silver ions, abiotic stresses, expression, protein functions
Type of Paper: Review
Title: Antitumoral activities of metal oxide nanoparticles
Authors: M.Pilar Vinardell, H, Llanas and M. Mitjans
Affilication: Physiology Departament, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitat de Barcelona, 08007 Barcelona, Italy
Abstract: In recent times, nanoparticles have received much attention for their implication in cancer therapy. Studies have shown that different metal oxide nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells but not in normal cells obtained from different sources. In some cases this anticancer activity has been demonstrated for the nanoparticle alone or in combination with different therapies, such as photocatalytic therapy or with some anticancer drugs. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have been demonstrated to have this activity alone or loaded with an anticancer drug such as doxorubicin. Other nanoparticles showing cytotoxic effects on cancer cells are cobalt oxide, iron oxide, cooper oxide and others. The mechanism of this antitumoral activity could be through the generation of ROS or apoptosis and necrosis among other possible. In the present paper we will review the more significant results obtained with different metal oxide nanoparticles in the context of antitumoral activity.