Special Issue "Nanotoxicology"

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A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Robert Tanguay

Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-4003, USA
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +1 541 737 0497
Interests: developmental toxicity; high throughput screening; nanotoxicology; zebrafish; gene expression, miRNAs, and systems toxicology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanomaterial science continues to advance with the generation of more complex nanostructures with exciting potential applications. There have been parallel advances in the biological sciences aimed at evaluating the biocompatibility of these novel nanoparticles. Over recent years, we have realized that evaluating nanoparticles and biological interactions is quite complex because local environmental conditions influences particle behavior, and thus biocompatibility. In order to advance the development of safer high performing products, we need to understand the structural basis for these dynamic behaviors.

In this Special Issue, we are especially interested in manuscripts that advance the understanding of the specific nanomaterials attributes that govern or influence nanomaterial behavior and biocompatibility. This Issue invites manuscripts ranging from understanding dynamic behaviors of particles in aqueous environment, cellular toxicity, whole animal toxicity, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, genotoxicity, and population scale effects. Manuscripts that define specific biological responses at the organismal, gene expression, proteomic, and genetic levels are also invited.

Prof. Dr. Robert Tanguay
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • biocompatibility
  • nanotoxicology
  • in vivo
  • in vitro
  • predictive
  • nanotoxicity
  • safety assessment
  • nanoparticle characterization

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Challenges and Advances in Nanotoxicology
Nanomaterials 2014, 4(3), 766-767; doi:10.3390/nano4030766
Received: 11 August 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 22 August 2014
PDF Full-text (129 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This Special Issue of Nanomaterials examines the potential for engineered nanomaterials to negatively impact biological systems and highlights some advances in evaluating key areas of their hazard potential. Nanomaterial science is evolving rapidly with the generation of more complex nanostructures with exciting potential
[...] Read more.
This Special Issue of Nanomaterials examines the potential for engineered nanomaterials to negatively impact biological systems and highlights some advances in evaluating key areas of their hazard potential. Nanomaterial science is evolving rapidly with the generation of more complex nanostructures with exciting potential applications. Keeping modern toxicology abreast of this innovation to the point that it guides a safer nanotechnology presents an equally exciting and eminently worthwhile challenge. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)

Research

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Open AccessArticle Accumulation and Toxicity of Copper Oxide Engineered Nanoparticles in a Marine Mussel
Nanomaterials 2014, 4(3), 535-547; doi:10.3390/nano4030535
Received: 30 March 2014 / Revised: 12 June 2014 / Accepted: 16 June 2014 / Published: 27 June 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (463 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cu is an essential trace element but can be highly toxic to aquatic organisms at elevated concentrations. Greater use of CuO engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) may lead to increased concentrations of CuO ENPs in aquatic environments causing potential ecological injury. We examined the toxicity
[...] Read more.
Cu is an essential trace element but can be highly toxic to aquatic organisms at elevated concentrations. Greater use of CuO engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) may lead to increased concentrations of CuO ENPs in aquatic environments causing potential ecological injury. We examined the toxicity of CuO ENPs to marine mussels and the influence of mussels on the fate and transport of CuO ENPs. We exposed marine mussels to 1, 2, or 3 mg L−1 CuO ENPs for four weeks, and measured clearance rate, rejection, excretion and accumulation of Cu, and mussel shell growth. Mussel clearance rate was 48% less, and growth was 68% less, in mussels exposed to 3 mg L−1 than in control animals. Previous studies show 100% mortality at 1 mg Cu L−1, suggesting that CuO ENPs are much less toxic than ionic Cu, probably due to the slow dissolution rate of the ENPs. Mussels rejected and excreted CuO ENPs in biodeposits containing as much as 110 mg Cu g−1, suggesting the potential for magnification in sediments. Mussels exposed to 3 mg L−1 CuO ENPs accumulated 79.14 ± 12.46 µg Cu g−1 dry weight, which was 60 times more Cu than in control animals. Our results suggest that mussels have the potential to influence the fate and transport of CuO ENPs and potentially cause magnification of CuO ENPs in mussel bed communities, creating a significant source of Cu to marine benthos. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)
Open AccessArticle Reducing X-Ray Induced Oxidative Damages in Fibroblasts with Graphene Oxide
Nanomaterials 2014, 4(2), 522-534; doi:10.3390/nano4020522
Received: 1 April 2014 / Revised: 17 June 2014 / Accepted: 19 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2557 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A major issue of X-ray radiation therapy is that normal cells can be damaged, limiting the amount of X-rays that can be safely delivered to a tumor. This paper describes a new method based on graphene oxide (GO) to protect normal cells from
[...] Read more.
A major issue of X-ray radiation therapy is that normal cells can be damaged, limiting the amount of X-rays that can be safely delivered to a tumor. This paper describes a new method based on graphene oxide (GO) to protect normal cells from oxidative damage by removing free radicals generated by X-ray radiation using grapheme oxide (GO). A variety of techniques such as cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, oxidative assay, apoptosis, γ-H2AX expression, and micro-nucleus assay have been used to assess the protective effect of GO in cultured fibroblast cells. It is found that although GO at higher concentration (100 and 500 µg/mL) can cause cell death and DNA damage, it can effectively remove oxygen free radicals at a lower concentration of 10 µg/mL. The level of DNA damage and cell death is reduced by 48%, and 39%, respectively. Thus, low concentration GO can be used as an effective radio-protective agent in occupational and therapeutic settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)
Open AccessArticle Biological Effects of Clinically Relevant CoCr Nanoparticles in the Dura Mater: An Organ Culture Study
Nanomaterials 2014, 4(2), 485-504; doi:10.3390/nano4020485
Received: 29 March 2014 / Revised: 9 May 2014 / Accepted: 26 May 2014 / Published: 16 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Medical interventions for the treatment of spinal disc degeneration include total disc replacement and fusion devices. There are, however, concerns regarding the generation of wear particles by these devices, the majority of which are in the nanometre sized range with the potential to
[...] Read more.
Medical interventions for the treatment of spinal disc degeneration include total disc replacement and fusion devices. There are, however, concerns regarding the generation of wear particles by these devices, the majority of which are in the nanometre sized range with the potential to cause adverse biological effects in the surrounding tissues. The aims of this study were to develop an organ culture model of the porcine dura mater and to investigate the biological effects of CoCr nanoparticles in this model. A range of histological techniques were used to analyse the structure of the tissue in the organ culture. The biological effects of the CoCr wear particles and the subsequent structural changes were assessed using tissue viability assays, cytokine assays, histology, immunohistochemistry, and TEM imaging. The physiological structure of the dura mater remained unchanged during the seven days of in vitro culture. There was no significant loss of cell viability. After exposure of the organ culture to CoCr nanoparticles, there was significant loosening of the epithelial layer, as well as the underlying collagen matrix. TEM imaging confirmed these structural alterations. These structural alterations were attributed to the production of MMP-1, -3, -9, -13, and TIMP-1. ELISA analysis revealed that there was significant release of cytokines including IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α, ECP and also the matrix protein, tenascin-C. This study suggested that CoCr nanoparticles did not cause cytotoxicity in the dura mater but they caused significant alterations to its structural integrity that could lead to significant secondary effects due to nanoparticle penetration, such as inflammation to the local neural tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of the Aerosol Generation and Toxicity of Carbon Nanotubes
Nanomaterials 2014, 4(2), 439-453; doi:10.3390/nano4020439
Received: 31 March 2014 / Revised: 27 May 2014 / Accepted: 29 May 2014 / Published: 12 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4197 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Current interest in the pulmonary toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has resulted in a need for an aerosol generation system that is capable of consistently producing a CNT aerosol at a desired concentration level. This two-part study was designed to: (1) assess the properties
[...] Read more.
Current interest in the pulmonary toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has resulted in a need for an aerosol generation system that is capable of consistently producing a CNT aerosol at a desired concentration level. This two-part study was designed to: (1) assess the properties of a commercially-available aerosol generator when producing an aerosol from a purchased powder supply of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs); and (2) assess the pulmonary sub-acute toxicity of DWCNTs in a murine model during a 5-day (4 h/day) whole-body exposure. The aerosol generator, consisting of a novel dustfeed mechanism and venturi ejector was determined to be capable of producing a DWCNT consistently over a 4 h exposure period at an average level of 10.8 mg/m3. The count median diameter was 121 nm with a geometric standard deviation of 2.04. The estimated deposited dose was 32 µg/mouse. The total number of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was significantly (p < 0.01) increased in exposed mice compared to controls. Similarly, macrophages in BAL fluid were significantly elevated in exposed mice, but not neutrophils. All animals exposed to CNT and euthanized immediately after exposure had changes in the lung tissues showing acute inflammation and injury; however these pathological changes resolved two weeks after the exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Surface Ligands and Synthesis Method on the Toxicity of Glutathione-Coated Gold Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2014, 4(2), 355-371; doi:10.3390/nano4020355
Received: 20 March 2014 / Revised: 16 April 2014 / Accepted: 30 April 2014 / Published: 12 May 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1015 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are increasingly used in biomedical applications, hence understanding the processes that affect their biocompatibility and stability are of significant interest. In this study, we assessed the stability of peptide-capped AuNPs and used the embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio) as
[...] Read more.
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are increasingly used in biomedical applications, hence understanding the processes that affect their biocompatibility and stability are of significant interest. In this study, we assessed the stability of peptide-capped AuNPs and used the embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a vertebrate system to investigate the impact of synthesis method and purity on their biocompatibility. Using glutathione (GSH) as a stabilizer, Au-GSH nanoparticles with identical core sizes were terminally modified with Tryptophan (Trp), Histidine (His) or Methionine (Met) amino acids and purified by either dialysis or ultracentrifugation. Au-GSH-(Trp)2 purified by dialysis elicited significant morbidity and mortality at 200 µg/mL, Au-GSH-(His)2 induced morbidity and mortality after purification by either method at 20 and 200 µg/mL, and Au-GSH-(Met)2 caused only sublethal responses at 200 µg/mL. Overall, toxicity was significantly reduced and ligand structure was improved by implementing ultracentrifugation purifications at several stages during the multi-step synthesis and surface modification of Au-GSH nanoparticles. When carefully synthesized at high purity, peptide-functionalized AuNPs showed high biocompatibility in biological systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)
Open AccessArticle Reproductive Toxicity and Life History Study of Silver Nanoparticle Effect, Uptake and Transport in Arabidopsis thaliana
Nanomaterials 2014, 4(2), 301-318; doi:10.3390/nano4020301
Received: 10 March 2014 / Revised: 15 April 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1079 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Concerns about nanotechnology have prompted studies on how the release of these engineered nanoparticles impact our environment. Herein, the impact of 20 nm silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the life history traits of Arabidopsis thaliana was studied in both above- and below-ground parts, at
[...] Read more.
Concerns about nanotechnology have prompted studies on how the release of these engineered nanoparticles impact our environment. Herein, the impact of 20 nm silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the life history traits of Arabidopsis thaliana was studied in both above- and below-ground parts, at macroscopic and microscopic scales. Both gross phenotypes (in contrast to microscopic phenotypes) and routes of transport and accumulation were investigated from roots to shoots. Wild type Arabidopsis growing in soil, regularly irrigated with 75 μg/L of AgNPs, did not show any obvious morphological change. However, their vegetative development was prolonged by two to three days and their reproductive growth shortened by three to four days. In addition, the germination rates of offspring decreased drastically over three generations. These findings confirmed that AgNPs induce abiotic stress and cause reproductive toxicity in Arabidopsis. To trace transport of AgNPs, this study also included an Arabidopsis reporter line genetically transformed with a green fluorescent protein and grown in an optical transparent medium with 75 μg/L AgNPs. AgNPs followed three routes: (1) At seven days after planting (DAP) at S1.0 (stages defined by Boyes et al. 2001 [41]), AgNPs attached to the surface of primary roots and then entered their root tips; (2) At 14 DAP at S1.04, as primary roots grew longer, AgNPs gradually moved into roots and entered new lateral root primordia and root hairs; (3) At 17 DAP at S1.06 when the Arabidopsis root system had developed multiple lateral roots, AgNPs were present in vascular tissue and throughout the whole plant from root to shoot. In some cases, if cotyledons of the Arabidopsis seedlings were immersed in melted transparent medium, then AgNPs were taken up by and accumulated in stomatal guard cells. These findings in Arabidopsis are the first to document specific routes and rates of AgNP uptake in vivo and in situ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)
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Open AccessArticle Potential Impact of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Exposure to the Seedling Stage of Selected Plant Species
Nanomaterials 2014, 4(2), 203-221; doi:10.3390/nano4020203
Received: 7 February 2014 / Revised: 22 March 2014 / Accepted: 22 March 2014 / Published: 31 March 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2618 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-textRetraction
Abstract
Phytotoxicity is a significant consideration in understanding the potential environmental impact of nanoparticles. Abundant experimental data have shown that multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are toxic to plants, but the potential impacts of exposure remain unclear. The objective of the present study was to
[...] Read more.
Phytotoxicity is a significant consideration in understanding the potential environmental impact of nanoparticles. Abundant experimental data have shown that multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are toxic to plants, but the potential impacts of exposure remain unclear. The objective of the present study was to evaluate possible phytotoxicity of MWNTs at 0, 20, 200, 1000, and 2000 mg/L with red spinach, lettuce, rice, cucumber, chili, lady’s finger, and soybean, based on root and shoot growth, cell death, and electrolyte leakage at the seedling stage. After 15 days of hydroponic culture, the root and shoot lengths of red spinach, lettuce, and cucumber were significantly reduced following exposure to 1000 mg/L and 2000 mg/L MWNTs. Similar toxic effects occurred regarding cell death and electrolyte leakage. Red spinach and lettuce were most sensitive to MWNTs, followed by rice and cucumber. Very little or no toxic effects were observed for chili, lady’s finger, and soybean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)
Open AccessArticle Magnetite Nanoparticles Induce Genotoxicity in the Lungs of Mice via Inflammatory Response
Nanomaterials 2014, 4(1), 175-188; doi:10.3390/nano4010175
Received: 6 January 2014 / Revised: 7 March 2014 / Accepted: 10 March 2014 / Published: 18 March 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (552 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanomaterials are useful for their characteristic properties and are commonly used in various fields. Nanosized-magnetite (MGT) is widely utilized in medicinal and industrial fields, whereas their toxicological properties are not well documented. A safety assessment is thus urgently required for MGT, and genotoxicity
[...] Read more.
Nanomaterials are useful for their characteristic properties and are commonly used in various fields. Nanosized-magnetite (MGT) is widely utilized in medicinal and industrial fields, whereas their toxicological properties are not well documented. A safety assessment is thus urgently required for MGT, and genotoxicity is one of the most serious concerns. In the present study, we examined genotoxic effects of MGT using mice and revealed that DNA damage analyzed by a comet assay in the lungs of imprinting control region (ICR) mice intratracheally instilled with a single dose of 0.05 or 0.2 mg/animal of MGT was approximately two- to three-fold higher than that of vehicle-control animals. Furthermore, in gpt delta transgenic mice, gpt mutant frequency (MF) in the lungs of the group exposed to four consecutive doses of 0.2 mg MGT was significantly higher than in the control group. Mutation spectrum analysis showed that base substitutions were predominantly induced by MGT, among which G:C to A:T transition and G:C to T:A transversion were the most significant. To clarify the mechanism of mutation caused by MGT, we analyzed the formation of DNA adducts in the lungs of mice exposed to MGT. DNA was extracted from lungs of mice 3, 24, 72 and 168 h after intratracheal instillation of 0.2 mg/body of MGT, and digested enzymatically. 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and lipid peroxide-related DNA adducts were quantified by stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Compared with vehicle control, these DNA adduct levels were significantly increased in the MGT-treated mice. In addition to oxidative stress- and inflammation related-DNA adduct formations, inflammatory cell infiltration and focal granulomatous formations were also observed in the lungs of MGT-treated mice. Based on these findings, it is suggested that inflammatory responses are probably involved in the genotoxicity induced by MGT in the lungs of mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)

Review

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Open AccessReview Autophagy as a Possible Underlying Mechanism of Nanomaterial Toxicity
Nanomaterials 2014, 4(3), 548-582; doi:10.3390/nano4030548
Received: 15 May 2014 / Revised: 23 May 2014 / Accepted: 23 June 2014 / Published: 8 July 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (967 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rapid development of nanotechnologies is raising safety concerns because of the potential effects of engineered nanomaterials on human health, particularly at the respiratory level. Since the last decades, many in vivo studies have been interested in the pulmonary effects of different classes
[...] Read more.
The rapid development of nanotechnologies is raising safety concerns because of the potential effects of engineered nanomaterials on human health, particularly at the respiratory level. Since the last decades, many in vivo studies have been interested in the pulmonary effects of different classes of nanomaterials. It has been shown that some of them can induce toxic effects, essentially depending on their physico-chemical characteristics, but other studies did not identify such effects. Inflammation and oxidative stress are currently the two main mechanisms described to explain the observed toxicity. However, the exact underlying mechanism(s) still remain(s) unknown and autophagy could represent an interesting candidate. Autophagy is a physiological process in which cytoplasmic components are digested via a lysosomal pathway. It has been shown that autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis and the progression of human diseases, and is able to modulate the oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory responses. A growing amount of literature suggests that a link between nanomaterial toxicity and autophagy impairment could exist. In this review, we will first summarize what is known about the respiratory effects of nanomaterials and we will then discuss the possible involvement of autophagy in this toxicity. This review should help understand why autophagy impairment could be taken as a promising candidate to fully understand nanomaterials toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)
Open AccessReview Carbon Nanotubes and Chronic Granulomatous Disease
Nanomaterials 2014, 4(2), 508-521; doi:10.3390/nano4020508
Received: 4 April 2014 / Revised: 15 May 2014 / Accepted: 12 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Use of nanomaterials in manufactured consumer products is a rapidly expanding industry and potential toxicities are just beginning to be explored. Combustion-generated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) or nanoparticles are ubiquitous in non-manufacturing environments and detectable in vapors from diesel fuel, methane, propane, and
[...] Read more.
Use of nanomaterials in manufactured consumer products is a rapidly expanding industry and potential toxicities are just beginning to be explored. Combustion-generated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) or nanoparticles are ubiquitous in non-manufacturing environments and detectable in vapors from diesel fuel, methane, propane, and natural gas. In experimental animal models, carbon nanotubes have been shown to induce granulomas or other inflammatory changes. Evidence suggesting potential involvement of carbon nanomaterials in human granulomatous disease, has been gathered from analyses of dusts generated in the World Trade Center disaster combined with epidemiological data showing a subsequent increase in granulomatous disease of first responders. In this review we will discuss evidence for similarities in the pathophysiology of carbon nanotube-induced pulmonary disease in experimental animals with that of the human granulomatous disease, sarcoidosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)
Open AccessReview Mechanisms Underlying Cytotoxicity Induced by Engineered Nanomaterials: A Review of In Vitro Studies
Nanomaterials 2014, 4(2), 454-484; doi:10.3390/nano4020454
Received: 8 May 2014 / Revised: 28 May 2014 / Accepted: 3 June 2014 / Published: 12 June 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2369 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Engineered nanomaterials are emerging functional materials with technologically interesting properties and a wide range of promising applications, such as drug delivery devices, medical imaging and diagnostics, and various other industrial products. However, concerns have been expressed about the risks of such materials and
[...] Read more.
Engineered nanomaterials are emerging functional materials with technologically interesting properties and a wide range of promising applications, such as drug delivery devices, medical imaging and diagnostics, and various other industrial products. However, concerns have been expressed about the risks of such materials and whether they can cause adverse effects. Studies of the potential hazards of nanomaterials have been widely performed using cell models and a range of in vitro approaches. In the present review, we provide a comprehensive and critical literature overview on current in vitro toxicity test methods that have been applied to determine the mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effects induced by the nanostructures. The small size, surface charge, hydrophobicity and high adsorption capacity of nanomaterial allow for specific interactions within cell membrane and subcellular organelles, which in turn could lead to cytotoxicity through a range of different mechanisms. Finally, aggregating the given information on the relationships of nanomaterial cytotoxic responses with an understanding of its structure and physicochemical properties may promote the design of biologically safe nanostructures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)
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Open AccessReview Emergent Properties and Toxicological Considerations for Nanohybrid Materials in Aquatic Systems
Nanomaterials 2014, 4(2), 372-407; doi:10.3390/nano4020372
Received: 11 April 2014 / Revised: 21 May 2014 / Accepted: 21 May 2014 / Published: 3 June 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1033 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Conjugation of multiple nanomaterials has become the focus of recent materials development. This new material class is commonly known as nanohybrids or “horizon nanomaterials”. Conjugation of metal/metal oxides with carbonaceous nanomaterials and overcoating or doping of one metal with another have been pursued
[...] Read more.
Conjugation of multiple nanomaterials has become the focus of recent materials development. This new material class is commonly known as nanohybrids or “horizon nanomaterials”. Conjugation of metal/metal oxides with carbonaceous nanomaterials and overcoating or doping of one metal with another have been pursued to enhance material performance and/or incorporate multifunctionality into nano-enabled devices and processes. Nanohybrids are already at use in commercialized energy, electronics and medical products, which warrant immediate attention for their safety evaluation. These conjugated ensembles likely present a new set of physicochemical properties that are unique to their individual component attributes, hence increasing uncertainty in their risk evaluation. Established toxicological testing strategies and enumerated underlying mechanisms will thus need to be re-evaluated for the assessment of these horizon materials. This review will present a critical discussion on the altered physicochemical properties of nanohybrids and analyze the validity of existing nanotoxicology data against these unique properties. The article will also propose strategies to evaluate the conjugate materials’ safety to help undertake future toxicological research on the nanohybrid material class. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)
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