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Nanomaterials 2015, 5(2), 851-873;

Penetration and Toxicity of Nanomaterials in Higher Plants

Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L'Aquila, Via Vetoio, I-67010 Coppito, L'Aquila, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Robert Tanguay
Received: 1 April 2015 / Revised: 20 May 2015 / Accepted: 21 May 2015 / Published: 26 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Nanotoxicology)
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Nanomaterials (NMs) comprise either inorganic particles consisting of metals, oxides, and salts that exist in nature and may be also produced in the laboratory, or organic particles originating only from the laboratory, having at least one dimension between 1 and 100 nm in size. According to shape, size, surface area, and charge, NMs have different mechanical, chemical, electrical, and optical properties that make them suitable for technological and biomedical applications and thus they are being increasingly produced and modified. Despite their beneficial potential, their use may be hazardous to health owing to the capacity to enter the animal and plant body and interact with cells. Studies on NMs involve technologists, biologists, physicists, chemists, and ecologists, so there are numerous reports that are significantly raising the level of knowledge, especially in the field of nanotechnology; however, many aspects concerning nanobiology remain undiscovered, including the interactions with plant biomolecules. In this review we examine current knowledge on the ways in which NMs penetrate plant organs and interact with cells, with the aim of shedding light on the reactivity of NMs and toxicity to plants. These points are discussed critically to adjust the balance with regard to the risk to the health of the plants as well as providing some suggestions for new studies on this topic. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon nanomaterials (CNMs); carbon nanotubes (CNTs); cytotoxicity; multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs); nanomaterials (NMs); nanoparticles (NPs); single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) carbon nanomaterials (CNMs); carbon nanotubes (CNTs); cytotoxicity; multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs); nanomaterials (NMs); nanoparticles (NPs); single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Chichiriccò, G.; Poma, A. Penetration and Toxicity of Nanomaterials in Higher Plants. Nanomaterials 2015, 5, 851-873.

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