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Nanomaterials 2015, 5(2), 436-467; doi:10.3390/nano5020436

Gene Expression, Protein Function and Pathways of Arabidopsis thaliana Responding to Silver Nanoparticles in Comparison to Silver Ions, Cold, Salt, Drought, and Heat

1
Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA
2
Department of Biology, Golestan University, Gorgan 49138-15739, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Robert Tanguay
Received: 25 February 2015 / Revised: 18 March 2015 / Accepted: 23 March 2015 / Published: 27 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Nanotoxicology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1702 KB, uploaded 27 March 2015]   |  

Abstract

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used in industry due to their unique physical and chemical properties. However, AgNPs have caused environmental concerns. To understand the risks of AgNPs, Arabidopsis microarray data for AgNP, Ag+, cold, salt, heat and drought stresses were analyzed. Up- and down-regulated genes of more than two-fold expression change were compared, while the encoded proteins of shared and unique genes between stresses were subjected to differential enrichment analyses. AgNPs affected the fewest genes (575) in the Arabidopsis genome, followed by Ag+ (1010), heat (1374), drought (1435), salt (4133) and cold (6536). More genes were up-regulated than down-regulated in AgNPs and Ag+ (438 and 780, respectively) while cold down-regulated the most genes (4022). Responses to AgNPs were more similar to those of Ag+ (464 shared genes), cold (202), and salt (163) than to drought (50) or heat (30); the genes in the first four stresses were enriched with 32 PFAM domains and 44 InterPro protein classes. Moreover, 111 genes were unique in AgNPs and they were enriched in three biological functions: response to fungal infection, anion transport, and cell wall/plasma membrane related. Despite shared similarity to Ag+, cold and salt stresses, AgNPs are a new stressor to Arabidopsis. View Full-Text
Keywords: silver nanoparticles; silver ions; abiotic stresses; gene expression; protein functions; pathways; Arabidopsis thaliana silver nanoparticles; silver ions; abiotic stresses; gene expression; protein functions; pathways; Arabidopsis thaliana
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kohan-Baghkheirati, E.; Geisler-Lee, J. Gene Expression, Protein Function and Pathways of Arabidopsis thaliana Responding to Silver Nanoparticles in Comparison to Silver Ions, Cold, Salt, Drought, and Heat. Nanomaterials 2015, 5, 436-467.

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