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Special Issue "Synthesis and Applications of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Organic Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Michael James Whitcombe

Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: molecular imprinting; polymer synthesis; molecular recognition; organic synthesis; sensors
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ian A. Nicholls

Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Interests: biomimetic systems; complex mixture modelling and spectroscopic studies of biological; synthetic and hybrid systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Molecular imprinting is the process by which specific binding sites can be created within a polymeric material by performing the polymerization in the presence of an ionic, molecular, or macromolecular template. Success depends on selection of appropriate monomers that interact with the template to create the complementary binding site and upon the nature of the polymer synthesis. Removal of the template allows the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) to rebind the intended target species. MIPs prepared in this way may be used in separations, sensors, assays, catalysis, bio-imaging, drug delivery and a host of other applications exploiting specific molecular recognition.

The present Special Issue, “Synthesis and Applications of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers” aims to assemble a diverse collection of articles describing aspects of MIP synthesis and application. In particular, we welcome contributions concerning the synthesis of MIPs for specific applications, the synthesis of new monomers, novel template approaches and methods of MIP design and synthesis. Both research articles and reviews will be considered.

Dr. Michael J. Whitcombe
Prof. Dr. Ian A. Nicholls
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs)
  • Molecular Recognition
  • Separations
  • Sensors
  • Assays
  • Nanomedicine
  • Catalysis
  • Bio-imaging
  • Drug delivery

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Evaluation of Oseltamivir Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Silica Gel as Liquid Chromatography Stationary Phase
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1881; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081881
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
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Abstract
To improve the chromatographic performance of an oseltamivir (OS) molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), silica gel coated with an MIP layer for OS (OSMIP@silica gel) was prepared by the surface molecular imprinting technology on the supporter of porous silica gel microspheres. A nonimprinted polymer
[...] Read more.
To improve the chromatographic performance of an oseltamivir (OS) molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), silica gel coated with an MIP layer for OS (OSMIP@silica gel) was prepared by the surface molecular imprinting technology on the supporter of porous silica gel microspheres. A nonimprinted polymer with the silica gel (NIP@silica gel) was also prepared for comparison. The obtained particles were characterized through FT–IR, scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area analysis, and porosity measurements. The results indicated that the polymer was successfully synthesized and revealed the structural differences between imprinted and nonimprinted polymers. The results of static adsorption experiments showed that adsorption quantity of the OSMIP@silica gel for OS was higher than that for NIP@silica gel, and the OSMIP@silica gel had two kinds of affinity sites for OS but the NIP@silica gel had one. The chromatographic performance of the OSMIP@silica gel column had significant improvement. The imprinting factor of the OSMIP@silica gel column for OS was 1.64. Furthermore, the OSMIP@silica gel column showed good affinity and selectivity for template OS and another neuraminidase inhibitor, peramivir, but not for quinocetone. These results indicated that the prepared OSMIP could be used to simulate the activity center of neuraminidase, and the OSMIP@silica gel column could be also employed in future studies to search for more active neuraminidase inhibitor analogues from traditional Chinese herbs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Applications of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Magnetic Porous Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Based on Surface Precipitation Polymerization and Mesoporous SiO2 Layer as Sacrificial Support for Efficient and Selective Extraction and Determination of Chlorogenic Acid in Duzhong Brick Tea
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1554; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071554
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 23 June 2018 / Published: 27 June 2018
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Abstract
Magnetic porous molecularly imprinted polymers (MPMIPs) for rapid and efficient selective recognition of chlorogenic acid (CGA) were effectively prepared based on surface precipitation polymerization using CGA as template, 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) as functional monomer, and mesoporous SiO2 (mSiO2) layer as sacrificial
[...] Read more.
Magnetic porous molecularly imprinted polymers (MPMIPs) for rapid and efficient selective recognition of chlorogenic acid (CGA) were effectively prepared based on surface precipitation polymerization using CGA as template, 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) as functional monomer, and mesoporous SiO2 (mSiO2) layer as sacrificial support. A computational simulation by evaluation of electronic binding energy is used to optimize the stoichiometric ratio between CGA and 4-VP (1:5), which reduced the duration of laboratory trials. The porous MIP shell and the rid of solid MIPs by magnet gave MPMIPs high binding capacity (42.22 mg/g) and fast kinetic binding (35 min). Adsorption behavior between CGA and MPMIPs followed Langmuir equation and pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. Furthermore, the obtained MPMIPs as solid phase adsorbents coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were employed for selective extraction and determination of CGA (2.93 ± 0.11 mg/g) in Duzhong brick tea. The recoveries from 91.8% to 104.2%, and the limit of detection (LOD) at 0.8 μg/mL were obtained. The linear range (2.0–150.0 μg/mL) was wide with R2 > 0.999. Overall, this study provided an efficient approach for fabrication of well-constructed MPMIPs for fast and selective recognition and determination of CGA from complex samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Applications of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Rapid Colorimetric Detection of Cartap Residues by AgNP Sensor with Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Microspheres as Recognition Elements
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1443; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061443
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
The overuse of cartap in tea tree leads to hazardous residues threatening human health. A colorimetric determination was established to detect cartap residues in tea beverages by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) sensor with magnetic molecularly imprinted polymeric microspheres (Fe3O4@mSiO2
[...] Read more.
The overuse of cartap in tea tree leads to hazardous residues threatening human health. A colorimetric determination was established to detect cartap residues in tea beverages by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) sensor with magnetic molecularly imprinted polymeric microspheres (Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs) as recognition elements. Using Fe3O4 as supporting core, mesoporous SiO2 as intermediate shell, methylacrylic acid as functional monomer, and cartap as template, Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs were prepared to selectively and magnetically separate cartap from tea solution before colorimetric determination by AgNP sensors. The core-shell Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs were also characterized by FT-IR, TEM, VSM, and experimental adsorption. The Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs could be rapidly separated by an external magnet in 10 s with good reusability (maintained 95.2% through 10 cycles). The adsorption process of cartap on Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs conformed to Langmuir adsorption isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity at 0.257 mmol/g and short equilibrium time of 30 min at 298 K. The AgNP colorimetric method semi-quantified cartap ≥5 mg/L by naked eye and quantified cartap 0.1–5 mg/L with LOD 0.01 mg/L by UV-vis spectroscopy. The AgNP colorimetric detection after pretreatment with Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs could be successfully utilized to recognize and detect cartap residues in tea beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Applications of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle The Selectivity of Polymers Imprinted with Amines
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061298
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 24 May 2018 / Published: 29 May 2018
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Abstract
One of the main reasons for making molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) has been that MIPs interact selectively with a specific target compound. This claim is investigated here with the example of a widely used type of noncovalent MIP, the MIP for the beta
[...] Read more.
One of the main reasons for making molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) has been that MIPs interact selectively with a specific target compound. This claim is investigated here with the example of a widely used type of noncovalent MIP, the MIP for the beta blocker propranolol. Adsorption isotherms of this MIP and of a nonimprinted control polymer (NIP), respectively, have been measured with a series of compounds in the porogen solvent acetonitrile. The results, visualized as “selectivity ladders”, show that the MIP binds propranolol and many other amines better than the NIP does, but the selectivity of the MIP is actually inferior to that of the NIP. The selectivity of either polymer for propranolol is modest against many amines, but is remarkable with respect to other compounds. The contribution of imprinting towards selectivity can be better appreciated when three MIPs, made with different amine templates, are compared among themselves. Each MIP is seen to bind its own template slightly better than the other two MIPs do. In media different from the porogen, the selectivity patterns may change substantially. Propranolol seems to have properties that make it stand high on the selectivity scale in different solvents, albeit for different reasons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Applications of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Determination of Ten Macrolide Drugs in Environmental Water Using Molecularly Imprinted Solid-Phase Extraction Coupled with Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051172
Received: 21 April 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
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Abstract
With the extensive application of antibiotics in livestock, their contamination of the aquatic environment has received more attention. Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), as an eco-friendly and durable solid-phase extraction material, has shown great potential for the separation and enrichment of antibiotics in water.
[...] Read more.
With the extensive application of antibiotics in livestock, their contamination of the aquatic environment has received more attention. Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), as an eco-friendly and durable solid-phase extraction material, has shown great potential for the separation and enrichment of antibiotics in water. This study aims at developing a practical and economical method based on molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for simultaneously detecting ten macrolide drugs in different sources of water samples. The MIP was synthesized by bulk polymerization using tylosin as the template and methacrylic acid as the functional monomer. The MIP exhibited a favorable load-bearing capacity for water (>90 mL), which is more than triple that of non-molecularly imprinted polymers (NIP). The mean recoveries of macrolides at four spiked concentration levels (limit of quantification, 40, 100, and 400 ng/L) were 62.6–100.9%, with intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations below 12.6%. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 1.0–15.0 ng/L and 3.0–40.0 ng/L, respectively. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of real water samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Applications of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers)
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Open AccessCommunication Molecularly Imprinted Microrods via Mesophase Polymerization
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
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Abstract
The aim of the present research work was the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with a rod-like geometry via “mesophase polymerization”. The ternary lyotropic system consisting of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), water, and decanol was chosen to prepare a hexagonal mesophase to
[...] Read more.
The aim of the present research work was the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with a rod-like geometry via “mesophase polymerization”. The ternary lyotropic system consisting of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), water, and decanol was chosen to prepare a hexagonal mesophase to direct the morphology of the synthesized imprinted polymers using theophylline, methacrylic acid, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a drug model template, a functional monomer, and a crosslinker, respectively. The obtained molecularly imprinted microrods (MIMs) were assessed by performing binding experiments and in vitro release studies, and the obtained results highlighted good selective recognition abilities and sustained release properties. In conclusion, the adopted synthetic strategy involving a lyotropic mesophase system allows for the preparation of effective MIPs characterized by a rod-like morphology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Applications of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Fast Extraction and Detection of 4-Methylimidazole in Soy Sauce Using Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymer by HPLC
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1885; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22111885
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (11078 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
On the basis of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MMIP) solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography, we established a new method for the determination of the 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) in soy sauce. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD)
[...] Read more.
On the basis of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MMIP) solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography, we established a new method for the determination of the 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) in soy sauce. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used to characterize the synthesized MMIPs. To evaluate the polymers, batch rebinding experiments were carried out. The binding strength and capacity were determined from the derived Freundlich isotherm (FI) equation. The selective recognition capability of MMIPs was investigated with a reference compound and a structurally similar compound. As a selective pre-concentration sorbents for 4-methylimidazole in soy sauce, the MMIPs showed a satisfied recoveries rate of spiked samples, ranged from 97% to 105%. As a result, the prepared MMIPs could be applied to selectively pre-concentrate and determine 4-methylimidazole in soy sauce samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Applications of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Molecularly Imprinted Polymers as Extracting Media for the Chromatographic Determination of Antibiotics in Milk
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020316
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (672 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Milk-producing animals are typically kept stationary in overcrowded large-scale farms and in most cases under unsanitary conditions, which promotes the development of infections. In order to maintain sufficient health status among the herd or promote growth and increase production, farmers administer preventative antibiotic
[...] Read more.
Milk-producing animals are typically kept stationary in overcrowded large-scale farms and in most cases under unsanitary conditions, which promotes the development of infections. In order to maintain sufficient health status among the herd or promote growth and increase production, farmers administer preventative antibiotic doses to the animals through their feed. However, many antibiotics used in cattle farms are intended for the treatment of bacterial infections in humans. This results in the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria which pose a great risk for public health. Additionally, antibiotic residues are found in milk and dairy products, with potential toxic effects for the consumers. Hence the need of antibiotic residues monitoring in milk arises. Analytical methods were developed for the determination of antibiotics in milk, with key priority given to the analyte extraction and preconcentration step. Extraction can benefit from the production of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) that can be applied as sorbents for the extraction of specific antibiotics. This review focuses on the principals of molecular imprinting technology and synthesis methods of MIPs, as well as the application of MIPs and MIPs composites for the chromatographic determination of various antibiotic categories in milk found in the recent literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Applications of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers)
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