E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Chitin, Chitosan and Related Enzymes"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Diversity".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Massimiliano Fenice

Laboratory of Microbiology, and Laboratory of Applied Marine Microbiology (Conisma), University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Production and characterization of microbial chitinolytic enzymes; biodiversity of microorganisms from extreme environments

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chitin (chitosan is a deacetylated derived of chitin) represents, after cellulose, the most abundant natural polysaccharide. For their peculiar physicochemical and biological properties (i.e., bioactivity, biocompatibility and biodegradability), chitin and, mainly, chitosan, oriented a great deal of original research and applications in biotechnology, medicine, and agriculture. The research on chitin, chitosan, and related enzymes attracted a great deal of researchers, leading to the institution of international societies, and many conferences devoted to study of this specific research field. Although extensive basic and application studies have been performed to explore the potential of these natural polymers, products based on these polymers enter the market slowly due to various technological and economic problems. However, things are changing rapidly and there is still room for interesting research novelties. This Special Issue is aimed to provide a framework for the dissemination of the “state-of-the-art” regarding the most advanced studies and applications of chitin, chitosan, and related enzymes. The main topics of this Special issue will be: the physics, chemistry, and biochemistry of chitin and chitosan; chitin, chitosan, and chitin-derivatives production; applications of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives; and the bio-synthesis and bio-degradation of chitin and chitosan.

Prof. Massimiliano Fenice
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • chitin
  • chitosan
  • chitin derivatives
  • chitinolytic enzymes
  • chitinolytic organisms

Published Papers (7 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-7
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Special Issue: Chitin, Chitosan and Related Enzymes
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1066; doi:10.3390/molecules22071066
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
PDF Full-text (169 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin, Chitosan and Related Enzymes)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of Glutamic-Chitosan Hydrogel for Copper and Nickel Removal from Wastewater
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 684; doi:10.3390/molecules21060684
Received: 24 March 2016 / Revised: 17 May 2016 / Accepted: 20 May 2016 / Published: 25 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5398 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chitosan was reacted with four concentrations (2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mmol) of glutamic acid resulting in four types of glutamic-chitosan hydrogels (GCs), the activity of the resulted compounds on the removal of copper(II) and nickel(II) from wastewater were tested. The results indicated
[...] Read more.
Chitosan was reacted with four concentrations (2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mmol) of glutamic acid resulting in four types of glutamic-chitosan hydrogels (GCs), the activity of the resulted compounds on the removal of copper(II) and nickel(II) from wastewater were tested. The results indicated that by increasing glutamic acid concentration from GCs-1 to GCs-4, the efficiency of removing Cu(II) and Ni(II) were decreased, which may be due to a decrease in the pore size of the hydrogels as a result of the increased degree of crosslinking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin, Chitosan and Related Enzymes)
Open AccessArticle Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Cheese Using Chitosan-Grafted Lactic Acid Packaging
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 469; doi:10.3390/molecules21040469
Received: 13 February 2016 / Revised: 29 March 2016 / Accepted: 29 March 2016 / Published: 8 April 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1777 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A chitosan from biologically obtained chitin was successfully grafted with d,l-lactic acid (LA) in aqueous media using p-toluenesulfonic acid as catalyst to obtain a non-toxic, biodegradable packaging material that was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, water vapor permeability, and
[...] Read more.
A chitosan from biologically obtained chitin was successfully grafted with d,l-lactic acid (LA) in aqueous media using p-toluenesulfonic acid as catalyst to obtain a non-toxic, biodegradable packaging material that was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, water vapor permeability, and relative humidity (RH) losses. Additionally, the grafting in chitosan with LA produced films with improved mechanical properties. This material successfully extended the shelf life of fresh cheese and inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes during 14 days at 4 °C and 22% RH, whereby inoculated samples with chitosan-g-LA packaging presented full bacterial inhibition. The results were compared to control samples and commercial low-density polyethylene packaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin, Chitosan and Related Enzymes)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Chitosan Nanoparticles as Carriers for the Delivery of ΦKAZ14 Bacteriophage for Oral Biological Control of Colibacillosis in Chickens
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 256; doi:10.3390/molecules21030256
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 26 January 2016 / Accepted: 10 February 2016 / Published: 14 March 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1039 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of chitosan as a delivery carrier has attracted much attention in recent years. In this study, chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NP) and chitosan-ΦKAZ14 bacteriophage-loaded nanoparticles (C-ΦKAZ14 NP) were prepared by a simple coercavation method and characterized. The objective was to achieve an effective
[...] Read more.
The use of chitosan as a delivery carrier has attracted much attention in recent years. In this study, chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NP) and chitosan-ΦKAZ14 bacteriophage-loaded nanoparticles (C-ΦKAZ14 NP) were prepared by a simple coercavation method and characterized. The objective was to achieve an effective protection of bacteriophage from gastric acids and enzymes in the chicken gastrointestinal tract. The average particle sizes for CS-NP and C-ΦKAZ14 NP were 188 ± 7.4 and 176 ± 3.2 nm, respectively. The zeta potentials for CS-NP and C-ΦKAZ14 NP were 50 and 60 mV, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of C-ΦKAZ14 NP gave an onset temperature of −17.17 °C with a peak at 17.32 °C and final end set of 17.41 °C, while blank chitosan NP had an onset of −20.00 °C with a peak at −19.78 °C and final end set at −20.47. FT-IR spectroscopy data of both CS-NP and C-ΦKAZ14 NP were the same. Chitosan nanoparticles showed considerable protection of ΦKAZ14 bacteriophage against degradation by enzymes as evidenced in gel electrophoresis, whereby ΦKAZ14 bacteriophage encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles were protected whereas the naked ΦKAZ14 bacteriophage were degraded. C-ΦKAZ14 NP was non-toxic as shown by a chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) toxicity assay. It was concluded that chitosan nanoparticles could be a potent carrier of ΦKAZ14 bacteriophage for oral therapy against colibacillosis in poultry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin, Chitosan and Related Enzymes)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Sorption of Cu(II) Ions on Chitosan-Zeolite X Composites: Impact of Gelling and Drying Conditions
Molecules 2016, 21(1), 109; doi:10.3390/molecules21010109
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 6 January 2016 / Accepted: 13 January 2016 / Published: 19 January 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2771 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chitosan-zeolite Na-X composite beads with open porosity and different zeolite contents were prepared by an encapsulation method. Preparation conditions had to be optimised in order to stabilize the zeolite network during the polysaccharide gelling process. Composites and pure reference components were characterized using
[...] Read more.
Chitosan-zeolite Na-X composite beads with open porosity and different zeolite contents were prepared by an encapsulation method. Preparation conditions had to be optimised in order to stabilize the zeolite network during the polysaccharide gelling process. Composites and pure reference components were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD); scanning electron microscopy (SEM); N2 adsorption–desorption; and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). Cu(II) sorption was investigated at pH 6. The choice of drying method used for the storage of the adsorbent severely affects the textural properties of the composite and the copper sorption effectiveness. The copper sorption capacity of chitosan hydrogel is about 190 mg·g−1. More than 70% of this capacity is retained when the polysaccharide is stored as an aerogel after supercrititcal CO2 drying, but nearly 90% of the capacity is lost after evaporative drying to a xerogel. Textural data and Cu(II) sorption data indicate that the properties of the zeolite-polysaccharide composites are not just the sum of the properties of the individual components. Whereas a chitosan coating impairs the accessibility of the microporosity of the zeolite; the presence of the zeolite improves the stability of the dispersion of chitosan upon supercritical drying and increases the affinity of the composites for Cu(II) cations. Chitosan-zeolite aerogels present Cu(II) sorption properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin, Chitosan and Related Enzymes)
Figures

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessReview The Psychrotolerant Antarctic Fungus Lecanicillium muscarium CCFEE 5003: A Powerful Producer of Cold-Tolerant Chitinolytic Enzymes
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 447; doi:10.3390/molecules21040447
Received: 26 February 2016 / Revised: 25 March 2016 / Accepted: 31 March 2016 / Published: 5 April 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4393 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lecanicillium muscarium CCFEE 5003, isolated in Continental Antarctica, is a powerful producer of extracellular cold-tolerant enzymes. Chitin-hydrolyzing enzymes seems to be the principal extracellular catalytic activities of this psychrotolerant fungus. The production of chitinolytic activities is induced by chitin and other polysaccharides and
[...] Read more.
Lecanicillium muscarium CCFEE 5003, isolated in Continental Antarctica, is a powerful producer of extracellular cold-tolerant enzymes. Chitin-hydrolyzing enzymes seems to be the principal extracellular catalytic activities of this psychrotolerant fungus. The production of chitinolytic activities is induced by chitin and other polysaccharides and is submitted to catabolite repression. The chitinolytic system of L. muscarium consists of a number of different proteins having various molecular weights and diverse biochemical characteristics, but their most significant trait is the marked cold-tolerance. L. muscarium and selected strains of the biocontrol agent of pathogenic fungi Trichoderma harzianum, have been compared for their ability to produce chitinolytic enzymes at different temperatures. At low temperatures the Antarctic strain was definitely much more efficient. Moreover, the fungus was able to exert a strong mycoparasitic action against various other fungi and oomycetes at low temperatures. The parasitic role of this organism appeared related to the production of cell wall degrading enzymes being the release of extracellular chitinolytic enzymes a key event in the mycoparasitic process. Due to the mentioned characteristics, L. muscarium could have an important role for potential applications such as the degradation of chitin-rich materials at low temperature and the biocontrol of pathogenic organisms in cold environments. For these reasons and in view of future industrial application, the production of chitinolytic enzymes by the Antarctic fungus has been up-scaled and optimised in bench-top bioreactor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin, Chitosan and Related Enzymes)
Figures

Open AccessReview Chitosan and Its Derivatives as Highly Efficient Polymer Ligands
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 330; doi:10.3390/molecules21030330
Received: 28 December 2015 / Revised: 26 February 2016 / Accepted: 29 February 2016 / Published: 11 March 2016
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (2570 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The polyfunctional nature of chitosan enables its application as a polymer ligand not only for the recovery, separation, and concentration of metal ions, but for the fabrication of a wide spectrum of functional materials. Although unmodified chitosan itself is the unique cationic polysaccharide
[...] Read more.
The polyfunctional nature of chitosan enables its application as a polymer ligand not only for the recovery, separation, and concentration of metal ions, but for the fabrication of a wide spectrum of functional materials. Although unmodified chitosan itself is the unique cationic polysaccharide with very good complexing properties toward numerous metal ions, its sorption capacity and selectivity can be sufficiently increased and turned via chemical modification to meet requirements of the specific applications. In this review, which covers results of the last decade, we demonstrate how different strategies of chitosan chemical modification effect metal ions binding by O-, N-, S-, and P-containing chitosan derivatives, and which mechanisms are involved in binding of metal cation and anions by chitosan derivatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin, Chitosan and Related Enzymes)
Back to Top