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Molecules 2016, 21(3), 256; doi:10.3390/molecules21030256

Chitosan Nanoparticles as Carriers for the Delivery of ΦKAZ14 Bacteriophage for Oral Biological Control of Colibacillosis in Chickens

1
Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43300, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Bacteriology Research Department, National Veterinary Research Institute, P.M.B 01, Vom 930103, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Massimiliano Fenice
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 26 January 2016 / Accepted: 10 February 2016 / Published: 14 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin, Chitosan and Related Enzymes)
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Abstract

The use of chitosan as a delivery carrier has attracted much attention in recent years. In this study, chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NP) and chitosan-ΦKAZ14 bacteriophage-loaded nanoparticles (C-ΦKAZ14 NP) were prepared by a simple coercavation method and characterized. The objective was to achieve an effective protection of bacteriophage from gastric acids and enzymes in the chicken gastrointestinal tract. The average particle sizes for CS-NP and C-ΦKAZ14 NP were 188 ± 7.4 and 176 ± 3.2 nm, respectively. The zeta potentials for CS-NP and C-ΦKAZ14 NP were 50 and 60 mV, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of C-ΦKAZ14 NP gave an onset temperature of −17.17 °C with a peak at 17.32 °C and final end set of 17.41 °C, while blank chitosan NP had an onset of −20.00 °C with a peak at −19.78 °C and final end set at −20.47. FT-IR spectroscopy data of both CS-NP and C-ΦKAZ14 NP were the same. Chitosan nanoparticles showed considerable protection of ΦKAZ14 bacteriophage against degradation by enzymes as evidenced in gel electrophoresis, whereby ΦKAZ14 bacteriophage encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles were protected whereas the naked ΦKAZ14 bacteriophage were degraded. C-ΦKAZ14 NP was non-toxic as shown by a chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) toxicity assay. It was concluded that chitosan nanoparticles could be a potent carrier of ΦKAZ14 bacteriophage for oral therapy against colibacillosis in poultry. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan nanoparticles; bacteriophage; colibacillosis; chickens chitosan nanoparticles; bacteriophage; colibacillosis; chickens
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Kaikabo, A.A.; Sabo Mohammed, A.; Abas, F. Chitosan Nanoparticles as Carriers for the Delivery of ΦKAZ14 Bacteriophage for Oral Biological Control of Colibacillosis in Chickens. Molecules 2016, 21, 256.

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