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Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 6th International Conference on Natural Products for Health and Beauty (NATPRO 6)"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Anake Kijjoa

Departamento de Química, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas de Abel Salazar and CIIMAR, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge de Viterbo Ferreira, nº228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +351-222062288
Interests: characterization and antitumor evaluation of the bioactive compounds from the marine sponges and marine-derived fungi; search for antifungal and antibacterial compounds from higher plants, marine invertebrates, soil and marine-derived fungi
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Bungorn Sripanidkulchai

Center for Research and Development of Herbal Health Products, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, 123 Mitrapap Rd, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand
E-Mail
Interests: biochemical and pharmacological aspect of herbal health products, product prototype development
Guest Editor
Prof. Maria Emília de Sousa

1. Laboratório de Química Orgânica e Farmacêutica, Departamento de Ciências, Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313, Porto, Portugal
2. Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Avenida General Norton de Matos, S/N 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Interests: medicinal chemistry; organic synthesis; heterocycles, P-glycoprotein; anticancer; anticoagulants; chiral drugs

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Throughout the ages, humans have relied on nature for their basic needs for the production of foodstuffs, shelters, clothing, fertilizers, flavors and fragrances, and, certainly not least of all, medicine. The medicinal use of natural products—compounds that are derived from natural sources, such as plants, animals, or micro-organisms—precedes recorded human history, probably by thousands of years. Medicinal plants are also widely used as bioactive raw materials for cosmetics and personal care products. The advance in research and application of Natural Products are owed, to a great extent, to modern chemistry. Analytical and structural chemistry have provided the tools to purify various compounds and to determine their structures, which, in turn, have provided insights into their actions on the human body. On the other hand, the modern tools of chemistry, and biology in particular, the various `-omics’ technologies, now allow scientists to detail the exact nature of the biological effects of natural compounds on the human body, as well as to uncover possible synergies, which holds a great deal of promise for the development of new therapies against many devastating diseases. However, the concept of “medicines of natural origin” should not automatically imply that the remedy will be completely harmless. Many factors contribute to the side-effect profile of a herbal remedy. For exemple, the herb itself may or may not be harmful but when this herb forms part of a herbal product, then the quality of the preparation process plays an important part in product safety. Moreover, plant material can come from a variety of sources, including commercial production horticulture and wild harvest. Thus, regulations like Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), and Good Clinical Practices (GCP) should be established to guide sustainable sourcing and production of plant material.

This Special Issue of Molecules on “Natural Products for Health and Beauty” welcomes submission of previously unpublished manuscripts from original work on all the above aspects, including the chemistry and biological activity of bioactive compounds, efficacy of Natural Products, Safety and Regulations on Natural Products, Natural Products used in cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals, health, and beauty product development and innovation, and consumer research. We plan to receive submissions from 30 November 2015 to 20 February 2016.

For more details on NATPRO 6, please click on: http://natpro6.org/home/index.php?l=en

 

Dr. Anake Kijjoa
Dr. Bungorn Sripanidkulchai
Dr. Maria Emilia de Sousa
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • medicinal plants
  • bioactive natural products
  • cosmeceuticals
  • nutraceutical
  • quality control
  • safety and regulations.

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Extraction and Characterization of Tamarind (Tamarind indica L.) Seed Polysaccharides (TSP) from Three Difference Sources
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 775; doi:10.3390/molecules21060775
Received: 18 February 2016 / Revised: 17 May 2016 / Accepted: 25 May 2016 / Published: 15 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3302 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP), a natural polysaccharide extracted from tamarind seeds is used in the pharmaceutical, textile and food industries as a mucoadhesive polymer. This work aimed to extract TSP from tamarind seeds from three sources with two methods and characterized its physical
[...] Read more.
Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP), a natural polysaccharide extracted from tamarind seeds is used in the pharmaceutical, textile and food industries as a mucoadhesive polymer. This work aimed to extract TSP from tamarind seeds from three sources with two methods and characterized its physical and chemical properties. Kernel powder of tamarind seeds was slurried into a clear solution, set aside overnight and then centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 20 min to separate all foreign matter. The supernatant was separated and poured into excess 95% ethanol with continuous stirring. The precipitate obtained was collected and dried in the oven and then the dried TSP polymer was stored in a desiccator. The dried TSP was analyzed by 1H-NMR, FT-IR and XRD. The results showed TSP from tamarind seeds taken from paddy farmland (A), a waste from the export tamarind juice industry (B) and the export tamarind powder industry(C) gave yields of 31.55%, 26.95% and 17.30%, respectively, using method 1 and 11.15%, 53.65% and 54.65%, with method 2, respectively, but method 2 gave purer TSP than method 1. The FT-IR spectra displayed peaks at 3351.95 cm−1, 2920.76 cm−1, 1018.85 cm−1 and 555.16 cm−1. The 1H-NMR showed polysaccharide peaks between δ 3.50–4.20 ppm and XRD diagrams indicated their amorphous nature. Future works will focus on the quantitative analysis, biological activity and possible use of TSP as a drug delivery system. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa Extract on Killing Activity of Human Neutrophils and Membrane Integrity of Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 692; doi:10.3390/molecules21060692
Received: 20 February 2016 / Revised: 21 May 2016 / Accepted: 23 May 2016 / Published: 27 May 2016
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Abstract
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 is one of the most virulent causative agents of foodborne disease. Use of antibiotics for the treatment against E. coli O157:H7 infection leads to hemolytic uremic syndrome. The present study evaluated the potential of ethanolic
[...] Read more.
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 is one of the most virulent causative agents of foodborne disease. Use of antibiotics for the treatment against E. coli O157:H7 infection leads to hemolytic uremic syndrome. The present study evaluated the potential of ethanolic leaf extract of a medicinal plant, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa in enhancing the killing activity of human neutrophils against E. coli O157:H7. In addition, the effects of the extract on membrane permeability of the organisms were studied. In the killing assay, percentage survival of the bacterial cells after being exposed to human neutrophils in the presence of various concentrations of the extract were determined. At 45 min, percentage survival of E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli ATCC 25922 after treated with neutrophils in the presence of the extract at 125–250 µg/mL was 58.48%–50.28% and 69.13%–35.35%, respectively. Furthermore, upon treatment with R. tomentosa at 250 µg/mL uptake of crystal violet by E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli ATCC 25922 was increased to 40.07% and 36.16%, respectively. Therefore, it is suggested that the extract exhibited dual effects as immunostimulant and membrane permeabilizing agent perhaps resulted in enhancing the killing activity of neutrophils against the organisms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of Chromatographic Fingerprints of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) Roots Using Online Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography (SPE-LC)
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 583; doi:10.3390/molecules21050583
Received: 16 February 2016 / Revised: 26 April 2016 / Accepted: 27 April 2016 / Published: 30 April 2016
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Abstract
E. longifolia is attracting interest due to its pharmacological properties and pro-vitality effects. In this study, an online SPE-LC approach using polystyrene divinyl benzene (PSDVB) and C18 columns was developed in obtaining chromatographic fingerprints of E. longifolia. E. longifolia root samples were
[...] Read more.
E. longifolia is attracting interest due to its pharmacological properties and pro-vitality effects. In this study, an online SPE-LC approach using polystyrene divinyl benzene (PSDVB) and C18 columns was developed in obtaining chromatographic fingerprints of E. longifolia. E. longifolia root samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) technique prior to online SPE-LC. The effects of mobile phase compositions and column switching time on the chromatographic fingerprint were optimized. Validation of the developed method was studied based on eurycomanone. Linearity was in the range of 5 to 50 µg∙mL−1 (r2 = 0.997) with 3.2% relative standard deviation of peak area. The developed method was used to analyze 14 E. longifolia root samples and 10 products (capsules). Selected chemometric techniques: cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA), and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to the fingerprint datasets of 37 selected peaks to evaluate the ability of the chromatographic fingerprint in classifying quality of E. longifolia. Three groups were obtained using CA. DA yielded 100% correlation coefficient with 19 discriminant compounds. Using PCA, E. longifolia root samples were clearly discriminated from the products. This study showed that the developed online SPE-LC method was able to provide comprehensive evaluation of E. longifolia samples for quality control purposes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Development of an in Vitro System to Simulate the Adsorption of Self-Emulsifying Tea (Camellia oleifera) Seed Oil
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 479; doi:10.3390/molecules21050479
Received: 20 February 2016 / Revised: 31 March 2016 / Accepted: 1 April 2016 / Published: 29 April 2016
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Abstract
In this study, tea (Camellia oleifera) seed oil was formulated into self-emulsifying oil formulations (SEOF) to enhance the aqueous dispersibility and intestinal retention to achieve higher bioavailability. Self-emulsifying tea seed oils were developed by using different concentrations of lecithin in combination
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In this study, tea (Camellia oleifera) seed oil was formulated into self-emulsifying oil formulations (SEOF) to enhance the aqueous dispersibility and intestinal retention to achieve higher bioavailability. Self-emulsifying tea seed oils were developed by using different concentrations of lecithin in combination with surfactant blends (Span®80 and Tween®80). The lecithin/surfactant systems were able to provide clear and stable liquid formulations. The SEOF were investigated for physicochemical properties including appearance, emulsion droplets size, PDI and zeta potential. The chemical compositions of tea seed oil and SEOF were compared using GC-MS techniques. In addition, the oil adsorption measurement on artificial membranes was performed using a Franz cell apparatus and colorimetric analysis. The microscopic structure of membranes was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After aqueous dilution with fed-state simulated gastric fluid (FeSSGF), the droplet size of all SEOF was close to 200 nm with low PDI values and the zeta potential was negative. GC-MS chromatograms revealed that the chemical compositions of SEOF were not significantly different from that of the original tea seed oil. The morphological study showed that only the SEOF could form film layers. The oil droplets were extracted both from membrane treated with tea seed oil and the SEOF in order to evaluate the chemical compositions by GC-MS. Full article
Open AccessArticle Chemical Constituents of Malaysian U. cordata var. ferruginea and Their in Vitro α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 525; doi:10.3390/molecules21050525
Received: 19 February 2016 / Revised: 29 March 2016 / Accepted: 5 April 2016 / Published: 27 April 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (554 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Continuing our interest in the Uncaria genus, the phytochemistry and the in-vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Malaysian Uncaria cordata var. ferruginea were investigated. The phytochemical study of this plant, which employed various chromatographic techniques including recycling preparative HPLC, led to the
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Continuing our interest in the Uncaria genus, the phytochemistry and the in-vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Malaysian Uncaria cordata var. ferruginea were investigated. The phytochemical study of this plant, which employed various chromatographic techniques including recycling preparative HPLC, led to the isolation of ten compounds with diverse structures comprising three phenolic acids, two coumarins, three flavonoids, a terpene and an iridoid glycoside. These constituents were identified as 2-hydroxybenzoic acid or salicylic acid (1), 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3), scopoletin or 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-coumarin (4), 3,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin (5), quercetin (6), kaempferol (7), taxifolin (8), loganin (9) and β-sitosterol (10). Structure elucidation of the compounds was accomplished with the aid of 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectral data and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). In the α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, the crude methanolic extract of the stems of the plant and its acetone fraction exhibited strong α-glucosidase inhibition activity of 87.7% and 89.2%, respectively, while its DCM fraction exhibited only moderate inhibition (75.3%) at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The IC50 values of both fractions were found to be significantly lower than the standard acarbose suggesting the presence of potential α-glucosidase inhibitors. Selected compounds isolated from the active fractions were then subjected to α-glucosidase assay in which 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and quercetin showed strong inhibitory effects against the enzyme with IC50 values of 549 and 556 μg/mL compared to acarbose (IC50 580 μg/mL) while loganin and scopoletin only showed weak α-glucosidase inhibition of 44.9% and 34.5%, respectively. This is the first report of the isolation of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and loganin from the genus and the first report of the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Full article
Open AccessArticle Screening for Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Oroxylum indicum Fruit Extracts
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 446; doi:10.3390/molecules21040446
Received: 18 February 2016 / Revised: 31 March 2016 / Accepted: 1 April 2016 / Published: 7 April 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (465 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oroxylum indicum, which is called Pheka in Thai, is a traditional Thai plant in the Bignoniaceae family with various ethnomedical uses such as as an astringent, an anti-inflammatory agent, an anti-bronchitic agent, an anti-helminthic agent and an anti-microbial agent. The young fruits
[...] Read more.
Oroxylum indicum, which is called Pheka in Thai, is a traditional Thai plant in the Bignoniaceae family with various ethnomedical uses such as as an astringent, an anti-inflammatory agent, an anti-bronchitic agent, an anti-helminthic agent and an anti-microbial agent. The young fruits of this plant have also been consumed as vegetables. However, there has been no report concerning its antibacterial activities, especially activities related to clinically isolated pathogenic bacteria and the in vitro antioxidant effects of this plant. Therefore, the extracts from O. indicum fruits and seeds collected from different provinces in Thailand were prepared by decoction and maceration with ethanol and determined for their in vitro antibacterial effects on two clinically isolated bacteria, Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius, using disc diffusion assay. Ethanol extracts from O. indicum fruits collected from Nakorn Pathom province at the concentration of 1000 mg/mL exhibited intermediate antibacterial activity against S. intermedius with an inhibition zone of 15.11 mm. Moreover, it promoted moderate inhibitory effects on S. suis with an inhibition zone of 14.39 mm. The extracts prepared by maceration with ethanol promoted higher antibacterial activities than those prepared with water. The ethanol extract from the seeds of this plant, purchased in Bangkok, showed stronger in vitro antioxidant activities than the other extracts, with an EC50 value of 26.33 µg/mL. Phytochemical analysis suggested that the seed ethanol extract contained the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents (10.66 g% gallic acid equivalent and 7.16 g% quercetin equivalent, respectively) by a significant amount. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of the extracts showed the chromatographic band that could correspond to a flavonoid baicalein. From the results, extracts from O. indicum fruits have an in vitro antioxidant effect, with antibacterial potential, on clinically pathologic bacteria and they contain an antioxidant flavonoid which could be developed for medicinal and pharmaceutical purposes in the future. Full article
Open AccessArticle Physicochemical Properties of Defatted Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) Seed Flour after Alkaline Treatment
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 364; doi:10.3390/molecules21040364
Received: 5 February 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2016 / Accepted: 9 March 2016 / Published: 31 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (492 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rambutan seeds were subjected to SC-CO2 extraction at 35 MPa, 45 °C to obtain defatted rambutan seed flour. Its physicochemical properties before and after treatment with alakali solution using 0.075 N NaOH were investigated. Alkali-treated flour had a significant increment in bulk
[...] Read more.
Rambutan seeds were subjected to SC-CO2 extraction at 35 MPa, 45 °C to obtain defatted rambutan seed flour. Its physicochemical properties before and after treatment with alakali solution using 0.075 N NaOH were investigated. Alkali-treated flour had a significant increment in bulk density, swelling power, water adsorption capacity, emulsion capacity and stability but a reduction in turbidity, solubility and oil absorption capacity. Pasting measurements showed peak viscosity, breakdown, setback and final viscosity increased significantly for the alkali-treated flour, while pasting temperature decreased. The alkaline treatment decreased the least gelation concentration, but increased the apparent viscosity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Development of Wax-Incorporated Emulsion Gel Beads for the Encapsulation and Intragastric Floating Delivery of the Active Antioxidant from Tamarindus indica L.
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 380; doi:10.3390/molecules21030380
Received: 12 February 2016 / Revised: 3 March 2016 / Accepted: 16 March 2016 / Published: 22 March 2016
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Abstract
In this study, tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed extracts with potential antioxidant activity and toxicity to cancer cells were developed as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients in the form of emulsion gel beads. Three extracts were obtained from ethanol and water: TSCH50,
[...] Read more.
In this study, tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed extracts with potential antioxidant activity and toxicity to cancer cells were developed as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients in the form of emulsion gel beads. Three extracts were obtained from ethanol and water: TSCH50, TSCH95 and TSCH. All extracts exhibited high potential for superoxide anion scavenging activity over the IC50 range < 5–11 µg/mL and had no toxic effects on normal cells, however, the water extract (TSCH) was the most effective due to its free radical scavenging activity and toxicity in mitochondrial membranes of cancer cells. Next a study was designed to develop a new formulation for encapsulation and intragastric floating delivery of tamarind seed extract (TSCH) using wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads, which were prepared using a modified ionotropic gelation technique. Tamarind seed extract at 1% (w/w) was used as the active ingredient in all formulations. The effect of the types and amounts of wax on the encapsulation efficiency and percentage of the active release of alginate gel beads was also investigated. The results demonstrated that the incorporation of both waxes into the gel beads had an effect on the percentage of encapsulation efficiency (%) and the percentage of the active ingredient release. Furthermore, the addition of water insoluble waxes (carnauba and bee wax) significantly retarded the release of the active ingredient. The addition of both waxes had a slight effect on drug release behavior. Nevertheless, the increase in incorporated waxes in all formulations could sustain the percentage of active ingredient release. In conclusion, wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads using a modified ionotropic gelation technique could be applied for the intragastric floating delivery and controlled release of functional food and nutraceutical products for their antioxidant and anticancer capacity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Astaxanthin from Litopenaeus Vannamei on Carrageenan-Induced Edema and Pain Behavior in Mice
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 382; doi:10.3390/molecules21030382
Received: 18 February 2016 / Revised: 10 March 2016 / Accepted: 16 March 2016 / Published: 19 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4074 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carrageenan produces both inflammation and pain when injected in mouse paws via enhancement of reactive oxygen species formation. We have investigated an effect of astaxanthin extracted from Litopenaeus vannamei in carrageenan-induced mice paw edema and pain. The current study demonstrates interesting effects from
[...] Read more.
Carrageenan produces both inflammation and pain when injected in mouse paws via enhancement of reactive oxygen species formation. We have investigated an effect of astaxanthin extracted from Litopenaeus vannamei in carrageenan-induced mice paw edema and pain. The current study demonstrates interesting effects from astaxanthin treatment in mice: an inhibition of paw edema induced in hind paw, an increase in mechanical paw withdrawal threshold and thermal paw withdrawal latency, and a reduction in the amount of myeloperoxidase enzyme and lipid peroxidation products in the paw. Furthermore the effect was comparable to indomethacin, a standard treatment for inflammation symptoms. Due to adverse effects of indomethacin on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems, our study suggests promising prospect of astaxanthin extract as an anti-inflammatory alternative against carrageenan-induced paw edema and pain behavior. Full article
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