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Molecules 2016, 21(4), 446; doi:10.3390/molecules21040446

Screening for Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Oroxylum indicum Fruit Extracts

1
Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Kampangsaen campus, Nakhon Pathom 73140, Thailand
2
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Anake Kijjoa, Bungorn Sripanidkulchai and Maria Emília de Sousa
Received: 18 February 2016 / Revised: 31 March 2016 / Accepted: 1 April 2016 / Published: 7 April 2016
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Abstract

Oroxylum indicum, which is called Pheka in Thai, is a traditional Thai plant in the Bignoniaceae family with various ethnomedical uses such as as an astringent, an anti-inflammatory agent, an anti-bronchitic agent, an anti-helminthic agent and an anti-microbial agent. The young fruits of this plant have also been consumed as vegetables. However, there has been no report concerning its antibacterial activities, especially activities related to clinically isolated pathogenic bacteria and the in vitro antioxidant effects of this plant. Therefore, the extracts from O. indicum fruits and seeds collected from different provinces in Thailand were prepared by decoction and maceration with ethanol and determined for their in vitro antibacterial effects on two clinically isolated bacteria, Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius, using disc diffusion assay. Ethanol extracts from O. indicum fruits collected from Nakorn Pathom province at the concentration of 1000 mg/mL exhibited intermediate antibacterial activity against S. intermedius with an inhibition zone of 15.11 mm. Moreover, it promoted moderate inhibitory effects on S. suis with an inhibition zone of 14.39 mm. The extracts prepared by maceration with ethanol promoted higher antibacterial activities than those prepared with water. The ethanol extract from the seeds of this plant, purchased in Bangkok, showed stronger in vitro antioxidant activities than the other extracts, with an EC50 value of 26.33 µg/mL. Phytochemical analysis suggested that the seed ethanol extract contained the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents (10.66 g% gallic acid equivalent and 7.16 g% quercetin equivalent, respectively) by a significant amount. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of the extracts showed the chromatographic band that could correspond to a flavonoid baicalein. From the results, extracts from O. indicum fruits have an in vitro antioxidant effect, with antibacterial potential, on clinically pathologic bacteria and they contain an antioxidant flavonoid which could be developed for medicinal and pharmaceutical purposes in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibacterial; antioxidant; Oroxylum indicum; Streptococcus suis; Staphylococcus intermedius; DPPH; Disc diffusion; TLC; total phenolic; total flavonoid; baicalein antibacterial; antioxidant; Oroxylum indicum; Streptococcus suis; Staphylococcus intermedius; DPPH; Disc diffusion; TLC; total phenolic; total flavonoid; baicalein
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Sithisarn, P.; Nantateerapong, P.; Rojsanga, P.; Sithisarn, P. Screening for Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Oroxylum indicum Fruit Extracts. Molecules 2016, 21, 446.

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