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Molecules 2016, 21(5), 583; doi:10.3390/molecules21050583

Development of Chromatographic Fingerprints of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) Roots Using Online Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography (SPE-LC)

1
Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam 40450, Selangor, Malaysia
2
East Coast Environmental Research Institute, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu 21300, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Emília de Sousa
Received: 16 February 2016 / Revised: 26 April 2016 / Accepted: 27 April 2016 / Published: 30 April 2016
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Abstract

E. longifolia is attracting interest due to its pharmacological properties and pro-vitality effects. In this study, an online SPE-LC approach using polystyrene divinyl benzene (PSDVB) and C18 columns was developed in obtaining chromatographic fingerprints of E. longifolia. E. longifolia root samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) technique prior to online SPE-LC. The effects of mobile phase compositions and column switching time on the chromatographic fingerprint were optimized. Validation of the developed method was studied based on eurycomanone. Linearity was in the range of 5 to 50 µg∙mL−1 (r2 = 0.997) with 3.2% relative standard deviation of peak area. The developed method was used to analyze 14 E. longifolia root samples and 10 products (capsules). Selected chemometric techniques: cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA), and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to the fingerprint datasets of 37 selected peaks to evaluate the ability of the chromatographic fingerprint in classifying quality of E. longifolia. Three groups were obtained using CA. DA yielded 100% correlation coefficient with 19 discriminant compounds. Using PCA, E. longifolia root samples were clearly discriminated from the products. This study showed that the developed online SPE-LC method was able to provide comprehensive evaluation of E. longifolia samples for quality control purposes. View Full-Text
Keywords: chromatographic fingerprint; eurycomanone; Eurycoma longifolia; online SPE-LC; cluster analysis; discriminant analysis; principal component analysis chromatographic fingerprint; eurycomanone; Eurycoma longifolia; online SPE-LC; cluster analysis; discriminant analysis; principal component analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zaini, N.N.; Osman, R.; Juahir, H.; Saim, N. Development of Chromatographic Fingerprints of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) Roots Using Online Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography (SPE-LC). Molecules 2016, 21, 583.

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