Special Issue "Microalloyed Steel"
A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2016)
Prof. Dr. Isabel Gutierrez
CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), Manuel de Lardizábal 15, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: recrystallization, precipitation, phase transformation, thermomechanical processing of steels, cold rolling and annealing, relations between microstructure and mechanical properties
Microalloying in steels is about a century old. The attractiveness of microalloying is that it allows the reduction of costs by suppressing heat treatments and improving strength, weldability (reduction of C and Mn), and toughness (grain refinement). The use of Nb, V, and Ti, either as single micro-additions or in combination, together with thermomechanical processing and accelerated cooling, has been the base for the development of high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels. It can be estimated that these steels now represent 10% to 15% of the world’s steel production.
The progressive development of HSLA steels has been accompanied by intensive research providing the required metallurgical support. As a result, numerous international conferences have been entirely dedicated to this particular type of steel, and countless reviews and journal papers have been published in this field. Nevertheless, the subject remains of interest and is faced with both old and new challenges, such as:
- The need for improved microstructural homogeneity and combination of properties: strength, weldability, and toughness of the base material and at the HAZ.
- Close control of additions and use of tailored combinations of microalloying elements, adapted specifically to the plant conditions and product format.
- Optimized adaptation to more recent production technologies, such as near net shape and direct rolling, and the production of high strength high gauge sheets and sections.
Microalloying is also applied in advanced high strength steels (AHSS), such as dual phase (DP) and transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels, in martensitic plates and sheets (ultrahigh strength steels (UHSS)), and in engineering steels. The challenges are driven by the same general idea of acquiring improved material performance at a minimum cost.
Papers on recent advances and review articles, particularly related to the most challenging aspects of the use of microalloying, are invited for inclusion in this Special Issue on "Microalloyed steels".
Prof. Dr. Isabel Gutierrez
Manuscript Submission Information
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
- Near net shape
- TMCP (Thermomechanical processing)
- Annealing after cold rolling
- Thermal treatment
- Solution and precipitation
- Austenite conditioning
- Phase transformation
- Material performance
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Authors: J.B. Wiskel 1, J. Lu 2, O. Omotoso 3, D.G. Ivey 1 and H. Henein 1
1. Dept. of Chem. and Mat. Eng., University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2V4
2. Enbridge Pipelines, 10201, Jasper Ave, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T5J 3N7
3. Suncor Energy, W23-100, Suncor Energy Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T2P 3E3
Abstract: Quantitative X-ray diffraction (Rietveld method) was used to analyze the precipitates present in Grade 100 microalloyed steel. The precipitates were extracted from the steel using electrolytic dissolution and the residue from the dissolution was analyzed using X-ray diffraction. The diffraction pattern obtained from the extracted precipitates exhibited three (3) distinct peaks, and significant broadening of a fourth peak (corresponding to the < 10 nm size particles). The Rietveld method was applied to the measured diffraction pattern to obtain precipitate size, composition and weight fraction data for each peak. The mean precipitate diameter and average atomic composition of the nano-size (< 10 nm) precipitates was 4.7 nm and (Nb0.50Ti0.32Mo0.18) (C0.59N0.41) respectively. This precipitate size correlates well with the precipitate sizes measured in previous work by the authours using TEM and SANS. The average precipitate composition correlates well with the composition measured using energy dispersive x-ray analysis (in a TEM) for individual nano-sized precipitates. The calculated weight fraction of the nano-size precipitates in the extracted residue was 42.2wt%. The atomic compositions associated with the three distinct peaks observed in the X-ray diffraction pattern were calculated to be TiN, (Ti0.87Nb0.13)N and (Nb0.82Ti0.18)(C0.87N0.13) with weight fraction values of 12.9wt%, 31.7wt% and 13.1wt% respectively. The sizes of both the (Ti0.87Nb0.13)N group and the (Nb0.82Ti0.18)(C0.87N0.13) group were directly measured (in the TEM) and were observed to range from 150 nm to 570 nm and from 90 nm to 475 nm respectively. The Rietveld method was unable to determine a reasonable mean precipitate size for these two groups of precipitates. The compositional diversity of the precipitates (centered on the most common composition) resulted in X-ray diffraction peak broadening which was erroneously interpreted as a size broadening effect. The results from this work show that quantitative X-ray diffraction can be used to quantify some precipitate characteristics (i.e., weight fraction, the most prevalent precipitate composition and the size of the nano precipitates) in microalloyed steels.