Next Article in Journal
Microgalvanic Corrosion Behavior of Cu-Ag Active Braze Alloys Investigated with SKPFM
Next Article in Special Issue
Monotonic and Cyclic Behavior of DIN 34CrNiMo6 Tempered Alloy Steel
Previous Article in Journal
Development and Characterization of a Metal Injection Molding Bio Sourced Inconel 718 Feedstock Based on Polyhydroxyalkanoates
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Effect of Nb on the Continuous Cooling Transformation Curves of Ultra-Thin Strip CASTRIP© Steels
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Metals 2016, 6(4), 90; doi:10.3390/met6040090

Characterization of Precipitates in a Microalloyed Steel Using Quantitative X-ray Diffraction

1
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2V4, Canada
2
Enbridge Pipelines, 10201, Jasper Ave, Edmonton, AB T5J 3N7, Canada
3
Suncor Energy, Suncor Energy Centre, 111, 5 Ave SW, Calgary, AB T2P 3E3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Isabel Gutierrez
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 29 March 2016 / Accepted: 8 April 2016 / Published: 19 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microalloyed Steel)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2564 KB, uploaded 19 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

Quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) (also known as the Rietveld method) was used to analyze the precipitates present in Grade 100 microalloyed steel. The precipitates were extracted from the steel using electrolytic dissolution and the residue from the dissolution was analyzed using XRD. The XRD pattern exhibited three (3) distinct diffraction peaks, and significant broadening of a fourth peak corresponding to the <10 nm size precipitates. QXRD analysis was applied to the XRD pattern to obtain precipitate size, composition, and weight fraction data for each of the four diffraction peaks observed. The predicted mean precipitate diameter and average atomic composition of the nano-size (<10 nm) precipitates was 4.7 nm and (Nb0.50Ti0.32Mo0.18)(C0.59N0.41), respectively. The predicted precipitate size correlates well with the average size of precipitates measured in previous work by the authors using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The average atomic composition correlates well with the composition measured in this work using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis of individual nano-sized precipitates. The calculated weight fraction of the nano-size precipitates in the extracted residue was 42.2 wt. %. The calculated atomic compositions of the other three diffraction peaks were TiN, (Ti0.87Nb0.13)N, and (Nb0.82Ti0.18)(C0.87N0.13) with weight fraction values of 12.9 wt. %, 31.7 wt. %, and 13.1 wt. %, respectively. The sizes of both the (Ti0.87Nb0.13)N and the (Nb0.82Ti0.18)(C0.87N0.13) groups of precipitates were directly measured and were observed to range from 150 nm to 570 nm and from 90 nm to 475 nm, respectively. QXRD was unable to determine a reasonable mean precipitate size for either of these two groups of precipitates. The wide compositional range (i.e., varying levels of Nb and Ti) of these precipitates (as measured by EDX) resulted in XRD peak broadening that was erroneously interpreted as a size broadening effect. View Full-Text
Keywords: microalloyed steel; quantitative X-ray diffraction; precipitates; size; composition microalloyed steel; quantitative X-ray diffraction; precipitates; size; composition
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wiskel, J.B.; Lu, J.; Omotoso, O.; Ivey, D.G.; Henein, H. Characterization of Precipitates in a Microalloyed Steel Using Quantitative X-ray Diffraction. Metals 2016, 6, 90.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Metals EISSN 2075-4701 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top