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Special Issue "Metals for Additive Manufacturing"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Guillermo Requena

Department of Metals and Hybrid Materials, German Aerospace Center, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Institute of Materials Research, Linder Höhe, 51147 Köln, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: metallic structures and hybrid material systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Additive manufacturing is expected to revolutionize the production of metallic components, particularly for application fields, where complex geometries, highly customized parts, small part production numbers and/or lead-time saving, play a decisive role. Nevertheless, the metallurgical conditions under which materials are processed differ substantially from those taking place in conventional processing methods. This can lead to the formation of microstructures and, consequently, materials properties that yield lower performances than, e.g., forged or cast alloys. It is, therefore, of prime importance to focus research and development activities on the production of new alloys specifically designed for additive manufacturing methods. Activities encompassing the whole production chain, i.e., from powder production to post-processing of components are being currently carried out throughout the globe. This Special Issue is dedicated to disseminate these scientific efforts.

It is my pleasure to invite you to submit contributions that may take into account any of the materials aspects involved in the development of new alloys for additive manufacturing, e.g., microstructure formation and evolution, effects of defects, processing strategies, alloys’ composition, and alloys’ performance.

Prof. Dr. Guillermo Requena
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

 

Keywords

  • additive manufacturing
  • new alloy
  • processing strategies
  • microstructure formation
  • microstructure evolution
  • effect of defect
  • metals

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle An Assessment of Subsurface Residual Stress Analysis in SLM Ti-6Al-4V
Materials 2017, 10(4), 348; doi:10.3390/ma10040348
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 22 March 2017 / Published: 27 March 2017
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Abstract
Ti-6Al-4V bridges were additively fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) under different scanning speed conditions, to compare the effect of process energy density on the residual stress state. Subsurface lattice strain characterization was conducted by means of synchrotron diffraction in energy dispersive mode.
[...] Read more.
Ti-6Al-4V bridges were additively fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) under different scanning speed conditions, to compare the effect of process energy density on the residual stress state. Subsurface lattice strain characterization was conducted by means of synchrotron diffraction in energy dispersive mode. High tensile strain gradients were found at the frontal surface for samples in an as-built condition. The geometry of the samples promotes increasing strains towards the pillar of the bridges. We observed that the higher the laser energy density during fabrication, the lower the lattice strains. A relief of lattice strains takes place after heat treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals for Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Nickel-Based Superalloy Inconel 718 Powders onto AISI 4140 Alloy Steel Substrates: Interface Bond and Fracture Failure Mechanism
Materials 2017, 10(4), 341; doi:10.3390/ma10040341
Received: 25 January 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 March 2017 / Published: 25 March 2017
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Abstract
As a prospective candidate material for surface coating and repair applications, nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 (IN718) was deposited on American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 4140 alloy steel substrate by laser engineered net shaping (LENS) to investigate the compatibility between two dissimilar materials
[...] Read more.
As a prospective candidate material for surface coating and repair applications, nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 (IN718) was deposited on American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 4140 alloy steel substrate by laser engineered net shaping (LENS) to investigate the compatibility between two dissimilar materials with a focus on interface bonding and fracture behavior of the hybrid specimens. The results show that the interface between the two dissimilar materials exhibits good metallurgical bonding. Through the tensile test, all the fractures occurred in the as-deposited IN718 section rather than the interface or the substrate, implying that the as-deposited interlayer bond strength is weaker than the interfacial bond strength. From the fractography using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy disperse X-ray spectrometry (EDS), three major factors affecting the tensile fracture failure of the as-deposited part are (i) metallurgical defects such as incompletely melted powder particles, lack-of-fusion porosity, and micropores; (ii) elemental segregation and Laves phase, and (iii) oxide formation. The fracture failure mechanism is a combination of all these factors which are detrimental to the mechanical properties and structural integrity by causing premature fracture failure of the as-deposited IN718. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals for Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Manufacturing Feasibility and Forming Properties of Cu-4Sn in Selective Laser Melting
Materials 2017, 10(4), 333; doi:10.3390/ma10040333
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 24 March 2017
PDF Full-text (6331 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Copper alloys, combined with selective laser melting (SLM) technology, have attracted increasing attention in aerospace engineering, automobile, and medical fields. However, there are some difficulties in SLM forming owing to low laser absorption and excellent thermal conductivity. It is, therefore, necessary to explore
[...] Read more.
Copper alloys, combined with selective laser melting (SLM) technology, have attracted increasing attention in aerospace engineering, automobile, and medical fields. However, there are some difficulties in SLM forming owing to low laser absorption and excellent thermal conductivity. It is, therefore, necessary to explore a copper alloy in SLM. In this research, manufacturing feasibility and forming properties of Cu-4Sn in SLM were investigated through a systematic experimental approach. Single-track experiments were used to narrow down processing parameter windows. A Greco-Latin square design with orthogonal parameter arrays was employed to control forming qualities of specimens. Analysis of variance was applied to establish statistical relationships, which described the effects of different processing parameters (i.e., laser power, scanning speed, and hatch space) on relative density (RD) and Vickers hardness of specimens. It was found that Cu-4Sn specimens were successfully manufactured by SLM for the first time and both its RD and Vickers hardness were mainly determined by the laser power. The maximum value of RD exceeded 93% theoretical density and the maximum value of Vickers hardness reached 118 HV 0.3/5. The best tensile strength of 316–320 MPa is inferior to that of pressure-processed Cu-4Sn and can be improved further by reducing defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals for Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Inducing Stable α + β Microstructures during Selective Laser Melting of Ti-6Al-4V Using Intensified Intrinsic Heat Treatments
Materials 2017, 10(3), 268; doi:10.3390/ma10030268
Received: 31 January 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract Selective laser melting is a promising powder-bed-based additive manufacturing technique for titanium alloys: near net-shaped metallic components can be produced with high resource-efficiency and cost savings [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals for Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling of Processing-Induced Pore Morphology in an Additively-Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V Alloy
Materials 2017, 10(2), 145; doi:10.3390/ma10020145
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 17 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
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Abstract
A selective laser melting (SLM)-based, additively-manufactured Ti-6Al-4V alloy is prone to the accumulation of undesirable defects during layer-by-layer material build-up. Defects in the form of complex-shaped pores are one of the critical issues that need to be considered during the processing of this
[...] Read more.
A selective laser melting (SLM)-based, additively-manufactured Ti-6Al-4V alloy is prone to the accumulation of undesirable defects during layer-by-layer material build-up. Defects in the form of complex-shaped pores are one of the critical issues that need to be considered during the processing of this alloy. Depending on the process parameters, pores with concave or convex boundaries may occur. To exploit the full potential of additively-manufactured Ti-6Al-4V, the interdependency between the process parameters, pore morphology, and resultant mechanical properties, needs to be understood. By incorporating morphological details into numerical models for micromechanical analyses, an in-depth understanding of how these pores interact with the Ti-6Al-4V microstructure can be gained. However, available models for pore analysis lack a realistic description of both the Ti-6Al-4V grain microstructure, and the pore geometry. To overcome this, we propose a comprehensive approach for modeling and discretizing pores with complex geometry, situated in a polycrystalline microstructure. In this approach, the polycrystalline microstructure is modeled by means of Voronoi tessellations, and the complex pore geometry is approximated by strategically combining overlapping spheres of varied sizes. The proposed approach provides an elegant way to model the microstructure of SLM-processed Ti-6Al-4V containing pores or crack-like voids, and makes it possible to investigate the relationship between process parameters, pore morphology, and resultant mechanical properties in a finite-element-based simulation framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals for Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Tensile Properties Characterization of AlSi10Mg Parts Produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering via Nested Effects Modeling
Materials 2017, 10(2), 144; doi:10.3390/ma10020144
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 27 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
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Abstract
A statistical approach for the characterization of Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes is presented in this paper. Design of Experiments (DOE) and ANalysis of VAriance (ANOVA), both based on Nested Effects Modeling (NEM) technique, are adopted to assess the effect of different laser exposure
[...] Read more.
A statistical approach for the characterization of Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes is presented in this paper. Design of Experiments (DOE) and ANalysis of VAriance (ANOVA), both based on Nested Effects Modeling (NEM) technique, are adopted to assess the effect of different laser exposure strategies on physical and mechanical properties of AlSi10Mg parts produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS). Due to the wide industrial interest in AM technologies in many different fields, it is extremely important to ensure high parts performances and productivity. For this aim, the present paper focuses on the evaluation of tensile properties of specimens built with different laser exposure strategies. Two optimal laser parameters settings, in terms of both process quality (part performances) and productivity (part build rate), are identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals for Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Exploiting Process-Related Advantages of Selective Laser Melting for the Production of High-Manganese Steel
Materials 2017, 10(1), 56; doi:10.3390/ma10010056
Received: 1 December 2016 / Revised: 3 January 2017 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (11323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metal additive manufacturing has strongly gained scientific and industrial importance during the last decades due to the geometrical flexibility and increased reliability of parts, as well as reduced equipment costs. Within the field of metal additive manufacturing methods, selective laser melting (SLM) is
[...] Read more.
Metal additive manufacturing has strongly gained scientific and industrial importance during the last decades due to the geometrical flexibility and increased reliability of parts, as well as reduced equipment costs. Within the field of metal additive manufacturing methods, selective laser melting (SLM) is an eligible technique for the production of fully dense bulk material with complex geometry. In the current study, we addressed the application of SLM for processing a high-manganese TRansformation-/TWinning-Induced Plasticity (TRIP/TWIP) steel. The solidification behavior was analyzed by careful characterization of the as-built microstructure and element distribution using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, the deformation behavior was studied using uniaxial tensile testing and SEM. Comparison with conventionally produced TRIP/TWIP steel revealed that elemental segregation, which is normally very pronounced in high-manganese steels and requires energy-intensive post processing, is reduced due to the high cooling rates during SLM. Also, the very fast cooling promoted ε- and α’-martensite formation prior to deformation. The superior strength and pronounced anisotropy of the SLM-produced material was correlated with the microstructure based on the process-specific characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals for Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Maraging Steel Micro- and Nanostructure Produced Conventionally and by Laser Additive Manufacturing
Materials 2017, 10(1), 8; doi:10.3390/ma10010008
Received: 1 December 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 24 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (12056 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Maraging steels are used to produce tools by Additive Manufacturing (AM) methods such as Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) and Selective Laser Melting (SLM). Although it is well established that dense parts can be produced by AM, the influence of the AM process on
[...] Read more.
Maraging steels are used to produce tools by Additive Manufacturing (AM) methods such as Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) and Selective Laser Melting (SLM). Although it is well established that dense parts can be produced by AM, the influence of the AM process on the microstructure—in particular the content of retained and reversed austenite as well as the nanostructure, especially the precipitate density and chemistry, are not yet explored. Here, we study these features using microhardness measurements, Optical Microscopy, Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and Atom Probe Tomography (APT) in the as-produced state and during ageing heat treatment. We find that due to microsegregation, retained austenite exists in the as-LMD- and as-SLM-produced states but not in the conventionally-produced material. The hardness in the as-LMD-produced state is higher than in the conventionally and SLM-produced materials, however, not in the uppermost layers. By APT, it is confirmed that this is due to early stages of precipitation induced by the cyclic re-heating upon further deposition—i.e., the intrinsic heat treatment associated with LMD. In the peak-aged state, which is reached after a similar time in all materials, the hardness of SLM- and LMD-produced material is slightly lower than in conventionally-produced material due to the presence of retained austenite and reversed austenite formed during ageing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals for Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Direct Printing of 1-D and 2-D Electronically Conductive Structures by Molten Lead-Free Solder
Materials 2017, 10(1), 1; doi:10.3390/ma10010001
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 22 December 2016
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (7173 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aims to determine the effects of appropriate experimental parameters on the thermophysical properties of molten micro droplets, Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder balls with an average droplet diameter of 50 μm were prepared. The inkjet printing parameters of the molten micro droplets, such as
[...] Read more.
This study aims to determine the effects of appropriate experimental parameters on the thermophysical properties of molten micro droplets, Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder balls with an average droplet diameter of 50 μm were prepared. The inkjet printing parameters of the molten micro droplets, such as the dot spacing, stage velocity and sample temperature, were optimized in the 1D and 2D printing of metallic microstructures. The impact and mergence of molten micro droplets were observed with a high-speed digital camera. The line width of each sample was then calculated using a formula over a temperature range of 30 to 70 °C. The results showed that a metallic line with a width of 55 μm can be successfully printed with dot spacing (50 μm) and the stage velocity (50 mm∙s−1) at the substrate temperature of 30 °C. The experimental results revealed that the height (from 0.63 to 0.58) and solidification contact angle (from 72° to 56°) of the metallic micro droplets decreased as the temperature of the sample increased from 30 to 70 °C. High-speed digital camera (HSDC) observations showed that the quality of the 3D micro patterns improved significantly when the droplets were deposited at 70 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals for Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Performance of High Layer Thickness in Selective Laser Melting of Ti6Al4V
Materials 2016, 9(12), 975; doi:10.3390/ma9120975
Received: 22 October 2016 / Revised: 13 November 2016 / Accepted: 22 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7615 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To increase building rate and save cost, the selective laser melting (SLM) of Ti6Al4V with a high layer thickness (200 μm) and low cost coarse powders (53 μm–106 μm) at a laser power of 400 W is investigated in this preliminary study. A
[...] Read more.
To increase building rate and save cost, the selective laser melting (SLM) of Ti6Al4V with a high layer thickness (200 μm) and low cost coarse powders (53 μm–106 μm) at a laser power of 400 W is investigated in this preliminary study. A relatively large laser beam with a diameter of 200 μm is utilized to produce a stable melt pool at high layer thickness, and the appropriate scanning track, which has a smooth surface with a shallow contact angle, can be obtained at the scanning speeds from 40 mm/s to 80 mm/s. By adjusting the hatch spacings, the density of multi-layer samples can be up to 99.99%, which is much higher than that achieved in previous studies about high layer thickness selective laser melting. Meanwhile, the building rate can be up to 7.2 mm3/s, which is about 2 times–9 times that of the commercial equipment. Besides, two kinds of defects are observed: the large un-melted defects and the small spherical micropores. The formation of the un-melted defects is mainly attributed to the inappropriate overlap rates and the unstable scanning tracks, which can be eliminated by adjusting the processing parameters. Nevertheless, the micropores cannot be completely eliminated. It is worth noting that the high layer thickness plays a key role on surface roughness rather than tensile properties during the SLM process. Although a sample with a relatively coarse surface is generated, the average values of yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation are 1050 MPa, 1140 MPa, and 7.03%, respectively, which are not obviously different than those with the thin layer thickness used in previous research; this is due to the similar metallurgical bonding and microstructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals for Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy: Grain Refinement by Adjusting Pulse Frequency
Materials 2016, 9(10), 823; doi:10.3390/ma9100823
Received: 26 August 2016 / Revised: 22 September 2016 / Accepted: 5 October 2016 / Published: 9 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (9763 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) offers a potential approach to fabricate large-scale magnesium alloy components with low cost and high efficiency, although this topic is yet to be reported in literature. In this study, WAAM is preliminarily applied to fabricate AZ31 magnesium. Fully
[...] Read more.
Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) offers a potential approach to fabricate large-scale magnesium alloy components with low cost and high efficiency, although this topic is yet to be reported in literature. In this study, WAAM is preliminarily applied to fabricate AZ31 magnesium. Fully dense AZ31 magnesium alloy components are successfully obtained. Meanwhile, to refine grains and obtain good mechanical properties, the effects of pulse frequency (1, 2, 5, 10, 100, and 500 Hz) on the macrostructure, microstructure and tensile properties are investigated. The results indicate that pulse frequency can result in the change of weld pool oscillations and cooling rate. This further leads to the change of the grain size, grain shape, as well as the tensile properties. Meanwhile, due to the resonance of the weld pool at 5 Hz and 10 Hz, the samples have poor geometry accuracy but contain finer equiaxed grains (21 μm) and exhibit higher ultimate tensile strength (260 MPa) and yield strength (102 MPa), which are similar to those of the forged AZ31 alloy. Moreover, the elongation of all samples is above 23%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals for Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Fabricating Superior NiAl Bronze Components through Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing
Materials 2016, 9(8), 652; doi:10.3390/ma9080652
Received: 9 July 2016 / Revised: 28 July 2016 / Accepted: 1 August 2016 / Published: 3 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5738 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cast nickel aluminum bronze (NAB) alloy is widely used for large engineering components in marine applications due to its excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Casting porosity, as well as coarse microstructure, however, are accompanied by a decrease in mechanical properties of cast
[...] Read more.
Cast nickel aluminum bronze (NAB) alloy is widely used for large engineering components in marine applications due to its excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Casting porosity, as well as coarse microstructure, however, are accompanied by a decrease in mechanical properties of cast NAB components. Although heat treatment, friction stir processing, and fusion welding were implemented to eliminate porosity, improve mechanical properties, and refine the microstructure of as-cast metal, their applications are limited to either surface modification or component repair. Instead of traditional casting techniques, this study focuses on developing NAB components using recently expanded wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM). Consumable welding wire is melted and deposited layer-by-layer on substrates producing near-net shaped NAB components. Additively-manufactured NAB components without post-processing are fully dense, and exhibit fine microstructure, as well as comparable mechanical properties, to as-cast NAB alloy. The effects of heat input from the welding process and post-weld-heat-treatment (PWHT) are shown to give uniform NAB alloys with superior mechanical properties revealing potential marine applications of the WAAM technique in NAB production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals for Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Structural Integrity of an Electron Beam Melted Titanium Alloy
Materials 2016, 9(6), 470; doi:10.3390/ma9060470
Received: 18 May 2016 / Revised: 2 June 2016 / Accepted: 4 June 2016 / Published: 14 June 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (9583 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Advanced manufacturing encompasses the wide range of processes that consist of “3D printing” of metallic materials. One such method is Electron Beam Melting (EBM), a modern build technology that offers significant potential for lean manufacture and a capability to produce fully dense near-net
[...] Read more.
Advanced manufacturing encompasses the wide range of processes that consist of “3D printing” of metallic materials. One such method is Electron Beam Melting (EBM), a modern build technology that offers significant potential for lean manufacture and a capability to produce fully dense near-net shaped components. However, the manufacture of intricate geometries will result in variable thermal cycles and thus a transient microstructure throughout, leading to a highly textured structure. As such, successful implementation of these technologies requires a comprehensive assessment of the relationships of the key process variables, geometries, resultant microstructures and mechanical properties. The nature of this process suggests that it is often difficult to produce representative test specimens necessary to achieve a full mechanical property characterisation. Therefore, the use of small scale test techniques may be exploited, specifically the small punch (SP) test. The SP test offers a capability for sampling miniaturised test specimens from various discrete locations in a thin-walled component, allowing a full characterisation across a complex geometry. This paper provides support in working towards development and validation strategies in order for advanced manufactured components to be safely implemented into future gas turbine applications. This has been achieved by applying the SP test to a series of Ti-6Al-4V variants that have been manufactured through a variety of processing routes including EBM and investigating the structural integrity of each material and how this controls the mechanical response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals for Additive Manufacturing)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessFeature PaperReview On the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) of the AlSi10Mg Alloy: Process, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties
Materials 2017, 10(1), 76; doi:10.3390/ma10010076
Received: 21 October 2016 / Revised: 10 January 2017 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 18 January 2017
PDF Full-text (41922 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this review is to analyze and to summarize the state of the art of the processing of aluminum alloys, and in particular of the AlSi10Mg alloy, obtained by means of the Additive Manufacturing (AM) technique known as Selective Laser Melting
[...] Read more.
The aim of this review is to analyze and to summarize the state of the art of the processing of aluminum alloys, and in particular of the AlSi10Mg alloy, obtained by means of the Additive Manufacturing (AM) technique known as Selective Laser Melting (SLM). This process is gaining interest worldwide, thanks to the possibility of obtaining a freeform fabrication coupled with high mechanical properties related to a very fine microstructure. However, SLM is very complex, from a physical point of view, due to the interaction between a concentrated laser source and metallic powders, and to the extremely rapid melting and the subsequent fast solidification. The effects of the main process variables on the properties of the final parts are analyzed in this review: from the starting powder properties, such as shape and powder size distribution, to the main process parameters, such as laser power and speed, layer thickness, and scanning strategy. Furthermore, a detailed overview on the microstructure of the AlSi10Mg material, with the related tensile and fatigue properties of the final SLM parts, in some cases after different heat treatments, is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals for Additive Manufacturing)
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