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Special Issue "Development and Characterisation of Encapsulated PCM: Nano-, Micro-, and Macro-Encapsulation"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials for Energy Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Luisa F. Cabeza

GREA Innovació Concurrent, Universitat de Lleida, Pere de Cabrera s/n, 25001 Lleida, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: thermal energy storage; energy efficiency; solar energy; buildings; industry
Guest Editor
Dr. A. Inés Fernández

Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Universtat de Barcelona, Marti Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: materials; thermal energy storage; characterisation; processing; polymers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Phase change materials (PCM) have been a research interest for many of us due to their wide range of applications and their challenges to meet the requirements set by those applications. Still, many issues remain unsolved and require work, such as encapsulation at nano, micro, and macro scales. Not only development of encapsulated PCM, but also the characterisation of the encapsulated PCM should be studied.

Therefore, it is our pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza
Dr. A. Inés Fernández
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • phase change materials
  • encapsulation
  • characterisation

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Determination of Specific Heat Capacity on Composite Shape-Stabilized Phase Change Materials and Asphalt Mixtures by Heat Exchange System
Materials 2016, 9(5), 389; doi:10.3390/ma9050389
Received: 9 March 2016 / Revised: 6 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2539 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous research has shown that composite shape-stabilized phase change material (CPCM) has a remarkable capacity for thermal storage and stabilization, and it can be directly applied to highway construction without leakage. However, recent studies on temperature changing behaviors of CPCM and asphalt mixture
[...] Read more.
Previous research has shown that composite shape-stabilized phase change material (CPCM) has a remarkable capacity for thermal storage and stabilization, and it can be directly applied to highway construction without leakage. However, recent studies on temperature changing behaviors of CPCM and asphalt mixture cannot intuitively reflect the thermoregulation mechanism and efficiency of CPCM on asphalt mixture. The objective of this paper is to determine the specific heat capacity of CPCM and asphalt mixtures mixed with CPCM using the heat exchange system and the data acquisition system. Studies have shown that the temperature-rise curve of 5 °C CPCM has an obvious temperature plateau, while an asphalt mixture mixed with 5 °C CPCM does not; with increasing temperature, the specific heat capacities of both 5 °C CPCM and asphalt mixture first increase and then decrease, while the variation rate of 5 °C CPCM is larger than that of the asphalt mixture, and the maximum specific heat capacity of 5 °C CPCM appears around the initial phase change temperature. It is concluded that the temperature intervals of 5 °C CPCM are −18 °C–7 °C, 7 °C–25 °C and 25 °C–44 °C, respectively, and that of the asphalt mixture are −18 °C~10 °C, −10 °C~5 °C and 5 °C~28 °C. A low dosage of 5 °C CPCM has little influence on the specific heat capacity of asphalt mixture. Finally, the functions of specific heat capacities and temperature for CPCM and asphalt mixture mixed with CPCM were recommended by the sectional regression method. Full article
Open AccessArticle Macro-Encapsulated PCM Cylinder Module Based on Paraffin and Float Stones
Materials 2016, 9(5), 361; doi:10.3390/ma9050361
Received: 31 January 2016 / Revised: 2 May 2016 / Accepted: 4 May 2016 / Published: 12 May 2016
PDF Full-text (4909 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organic phase change material (PCM) with macro-encapsulation is attractive in energy storage applications as it has relatively low cost. This study focuses on using PET plastic pipes to encapsulate paraffin and using low-cost float stones to increase the thermal conductivity of PCM modules
[...] Read more.
Organic phase change material (PCM) with macro-encapsulation is attractive in energy storage applications as it has relatively low cost. This study focuses on using PET plastic pipes to encapsulate paraffin and using low-cost float stones to increase the thermal conductivity of PCM modules as they have a special structure of high porosity. Float stones were immersed in the liquid PCM and an ultrasonic welding method used to prevent leakage of the PET plastic pipes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to discover the appearance of the composite PCM. The thermal performance of the PCM cylinder module was analyzed through experimental tests of a constant-temperature water bath and numerical simulations. The result indicates that this PCM Ccylinder module is superior in thermal energy storage compared with the reference module even though fewer PCM was contained and the latent heat loss is considerable. The pipe diameter is an important parameter when using this kind of PCM cylinder module in water tanks. Full article
Open AccessArticle On the Behavior of Different PCMs in a Hot Water Storage Tank against Thermal Demands
Materials 2016, 9(3), 213; doi:10.3390/ma9030213
Received: 19 January 2016 / Revised: 11 March 2016 / Accepted: 17 March 2016 / Published: 21 March 2016
PDF Full-text (7631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Advantages, such as thermal storage improvement, are found when using PCMs (Phase Change Materials) in storage tanks. The inclusion of three different types of materials in a 60 l test tank is studied. Two test methodologies were developed, and four tests were performed
[...] Read more.
Advantages, such as thermal storage improvement, are found when using PCMs (Phase Change Materials) in storage tanks. The inclusion of three different types of materials in a 60 l test tank is studied. Two test methodologies were developed, and four tests were performed following each methodology. A thermal analysis is performed to check the thermal properties of each PCM. The distributions of the water temperatures inside the test tanks are evaluated by installing four Pt-100 sensors at different heights. A temperature recovery is observed after exposing the test tank to an energy demand. An energetic analysis that takes into account the energy due to the water temperature, the energy due to the PCM and the thermal loss to the ambient environment is also presented. The percentage of each PCM that remains in the liquid state after the energy demand is obtained. Full article
Open AccessArticle Building Energy Storage Panel Based on Paraffin/Expanded Perlite: Preparation and Thermal Performance Study
Materials 2016, 9(2), 70; doi:10.3390/ma9020070
Received: 1 December 2015 / Revised: 13 January 2016 / Accepted: 18 January 2016 / Published: 25 January 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (6402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study is focused on the preparation and performance of a building energy storage panel (BESP). The BESP was fabricated through a mold pressing method based on phase change material particle (PCMP), which was prepared in two steps: vacuum absorption and surface film
[...] Read more.
This study is focused on the preparation and performance of a building energy storage panel (BESP). The BESP was fabricated through a mold pressing method based on phase change material particle (PCMP), which was prepared in two steps: vacuum absorption and surface film coating. Firstly, phase change material (PCM) was incorporated into expanded perlite (EP) through a vacuum absorption method to obtain composite PCM; secondly, the composite PCM was immersed into the mixture of colloidal silica and organic acrylate, and then it was taken out and dried naturally. A series of experiments, including differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), best matching test, and durability test, have been conducted to characterize and analyze the thermophysical property and reliability of PCMP. Additionally, the thermal performance of BESP was studied through a dynamic thermal property test. The results have showed that: (1) the surface film coating procedure can effectively solve the leakage problem of composite phase change material prepared by vacuum impregnation; (2) the optimum adsorption ratio for paraffin and EP was 52.5:47.5 in mass fraction, and the PCMP has good thermal properties, stability, and durability; and (3) in the process of dynamic thermal performance test, BESP have low temperature variation, significant temperature lagging, and large heat storage ability, which indicated the potential of BESP in the application of building energy efficiency. Full article
Open AccessArticle Development of Hollow Steel Ball Macro-Encapsulated PCM for Thermal Energy Storage Concrete
Materials 2016, 9(1), 59; doi:10.3390/ma9010059
Received: 7 December 2015 / Revised: 7 January 2016 / Accepted: 13 January 2016 / Published: 19 January 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3827 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The application of thermal energy storage with phase change materials (PCMs) for energy efficiency of buildings grew rapidly in the last few years. In this research, octadecane paraffin was served as a PCM, and a structural concrete with the function of indoor temperature
[...] Read more.
The application of thermal energy storage with phase change materials (PCMs) for energy efficiency of buildings grew rapidly in the last few years. In this research, octadecane paraffin was served as a PCM, and a structural concrete with the function of indoor temperature control was developed by using a macro-encapsulated PCM hollow steel ball (HSB). The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB was prepared by incorporation of octadecane into HSBs through vacuum impregnation. Test results showed that the maximum percentage of octadecane carried by HSBs was 80.3% by mass. The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB has a latent heat storage capacity as high as 200.5 J/g. The compressive strength of concrete with macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB at 28 days ranged from 22 to 40 MPa. The indoor thermal performance test revealed that concrete with macro-encapsulated octadecane-HSB was capable of reducing the peak indoor air temperature and the fluctuation of indoor temperature. It can be very effective in transferring the heating and cooling loads away from the peak demand times. Full article
Open AccessArticle Preparation and Characterization of Inorganic PCM Microcapsules by Fluidized Bed Method
Materials 2016, 9(1), 24; doi:10.3390/ma9010024
Received: 7 October 2015 / Revised: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 25 November 2015 / Published: 4 January 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2523 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The literature shows that inorganic phase change materials (PCM) have been very seldom microencapsulated, so this study aims to contribute to filling this research gap. Bischofite, a by-product from the non-metallic industry identified as having good potential to be used as inorganic PCM,
[...] Read more.
The literature shows that inorganic phase change materials (PCM) have been very seldom microencapsulated, so this study aims to contribute to filling this research gap. Bischofite, a by-product from the non-metallic industry identified as having good potential to be used as inorganic PCM, was microencapsulated by means of a fluidized bed method with acrylic as polymer and chloroform as solvent, after compatibility studies of both several solvents and several polymers. The formation of bischofite and pure MgCl2·6H2O microcapsules was investigated and analyzed. Results showed an efficiency in microencapsulation of 95% could be achieved when using 2 min of fluidization time and 2 kg/h of atomization flow. The final microcapsules had excellent melting temperatures and enthalpy compared to the original PCM, 104.6 °C and 95 J/g for bischofite, and 95.3 and 118.3 for MgCl2·6H2O. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Preparation and Characterization of Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials for Use in Building Applications
Materials 2016, 9(1), 11; doi:10.3390/ma9010011
Received: 6 November 2015 / Revised: 15 December 2015 / Accepted: 21 December 2015 / Published: 26 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A method for preparing and characterizing microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) was developed. A comparison with a commercial MPCM is also presented. Both MPCM contained paraffin wax as PCM with acrylic shell. The melting temperature of the PCM was around 21 °C, suitable
[...] Read more.
A method for preparing and characterizing microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) was developed. A comparison with a commercial MPCM is also presented. Both MPCM contained paraffin wax as PCM with acrylic shell. The melting temperature of the PCM was around 21 °C, suitable for building applications. The M-2 (our laboratory made sample) and Micronal® DS 5008 X (BASF) samples were characterized using SEM, DSC, nano-indentation technique, and Gas Chromatography/Mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both samples presented a 6 μm average size and a spherical shape. Thermal energy storage (TES) capacities were 111.73 J·g−1 and 99.3 J·g−1 for M-2 and Micronal® DS 5008 X, respectively. Mechanical characterization of the samples was performed by nano-indentation technique in order to determine the elastic modulus (E), load at maximum displacement (Pm), and displacement at maximum load (hm), concluding that M-2 presented slightly better mechanical properties. Finally, an important parameter for considering use in buildings is the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC’s). This characteristic was studied at 65 °C by CG-MS. Both samples showed VOC’s emission after 10 min of heating, however peaks intensity of VOC’s generated from M-2 microcapsules showed a lower concentration than Micronal® DS 5008 X. Full article
Open AccessArticle Preparation, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Cement Board with Expanded Perlite Based Composite Phase Change Material for Improving Buildings Thermal Behavior
Materials 2015, 8(11), 7702-7713; doi:10.3390/ma8115408
Received: 23 September 2015 / Revised: 30 October 2015 / Accepted: 2 November 2015 / Published: 13 November 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2644 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Here we demonstrate the mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, and thermal energy storage performance of construction elements made of cement and form-stable PCM-Rubitherm® RT 28 HC (RT28)/expanded perlite (EP) composite phase change materials (PCMs). The composite PCMs were prepared by adsorbing RT28 into the
[...] Read more.
Here we demonstrate the mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, and thermal energy storage performance of construction elements made of cement and form-stable PCM-Rubitherm® RT 28 HC (RT28)/expanded perlite (EP) composite phase change materials (PCMs). The composite PCMs were prepared by adsorbing RT28 into the pores of EP, in which the mass fraction of RT28 should be limited to be no more than 40 wt %. The adsorbed RT28 is observed to be uniformly confined into the pores of EP. The phase change temperatures of the RT28/EP composite PCMs are very close to that of the pure RT28. The apparent density and compression strength of the composite cubes increase linearly with the mass fraction of RT28. Compared with the thermal conductivity of the boards composed of cement and EP, the thermal conductivities of the composite boards containing RT28 increase by 15%–35% with the mass fraction increasing of RT28. The cubic test rooms that consist of six boards were built to evaluate the thermal energy storage performance, it is found that the maximum temperature different between the outside surface of the top board with the indoor temperature using the composite boards is 13.3 °C higher than that of the boards containing no RT28. The thermal mass increase of the built environment due to the application of composite boards can contribute to improving the indoor thermal comfort and reducing the energy consumption in the buildings. Full article
Open AccessArticle Study of Fresh and Hardening Process Properties of Gypsum with Three Different PCM Inclusion Methods
Materials 2015, 8(10), 6589-6596; doi:10.3390/ma8105324
Received: 6 August 2015 / Revised: 10 September 2015 / Accepted: 15 September 2015 / Published: 24 September 2015
PDF Full-text (1540 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gypsum has two important states (fresh and hardened states), and the addition of phase change materials (PCM) can vary the properties of the material. Many authors have extensively studied properties in the hardened state; however, the variation of fresh state properties due to
[...] Read more.
Gypsum has two important states (fresh and hardened states), and the addition of phase change materials (PCM) can vary the properties of the material. Many authors have extensively studied properties in the hardened state; however, the variation of fresh state properties due to the addition of Micronal® DS 5001 X PCM into gypsum has been the object of few investigations. Properties in fresh state define the workability, setting time, adherence and shrinkage, and, therefore the possibility of implementing the material in building walls. The aim of the study is to analyze, compare and evaluate the variability of fresh state properties after the inclusion of 10% PCM. PCM are added into a common gypsum matrix by three different methods: adding microencapsulated PCM, making a suspension of PCM/water, and incorporating PCM through a vacuum impregnation method. Results demonstrate that the inclusion of PCM change completely the water required by the gypsum to achieve good workability, especially the formulation containing Micronal® DS 5001 X: the water required is higher, the retraction is lower (50% less) due to the organic nature of the PCM with high elasticity and, the adherence is reduced (up to 45%) due to the difference between the porosity of the different surfaces as well as the surface tension difference. Full article

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