Special Issue "Phase Change Material (PCM) 2017"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Luisa F. Cabeza

GREA Innovació Concurrent, Universitat de Lleida, Pere de Cabrera s/n, 25001 Lleida, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: thermal energy storage; energy efficiency; solar energy; buildings; industry
Guest Editor
Dr. Sumin Kim

Building Environment & Materials Lab, School of Architecture, Soongsil University, Seoul 06978, Korea
Website | E-Mail
Interests: energy saving building materials; phase change materials; green buildings; building environments; indoor air quality
Guest Editor
Dr. Alvaro de Gracia

Departament d’Enginyeria Mecanica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Spain
E-Mail
Interests: thermal energy storage; numerical simulations; building applications; industrial applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Phase change materials (PCM) have attracted the attention of researchers for their use in different thermal energy storage (TES) systems. These materials can store and release high amounts of energy in a reduced thermal range, making them suitable for implementation in multiple applications, such as buildings, industrial processes, concentrating solar power plants, solar cooling plants, or waste heat recovery systems. Efforts on materials research are focused on the characterization and development of new materials, the overcoming of technical barriers, such as low thermal conductivity, and the improvement of the material properties with the use of nano- or micro-particles. Moreover, experimental tests at prototype scale are of crucial importance to analyze the performance of PCM use in a given application under laboratory or real conditions. Furthermore, numerical models play an important role to improve the design and control strategies of PCM units, which may lead to increase overall efficiency and to reduce investments and running costs, making the use of PCM technologies attractive to the market. Finally, the study of life cycle analyses (LCA) of PCM systems have demonstrated that the use of appropriate TES systems using PCM can lead to less pollution in the environment and less CO2 emissions.

Prof. Luisa F. Cabeza
Dr. Sumin Kim
Dr. Alvaro de Gracia
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Phase change materials (PCM)

  • Thermal Energy Storage (TES)

  • Solar applications

  • Buildings

  • Industrial applications

  • Waste heat recovery

  • Materials development

  • Numerical modelling

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Challenges of the Usual Graphical Methods Used to Characterize Phase Change Materials by Differential Scanning Calorimetry
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010066
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 9 January 2018
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Abstract
Modeling the thermal behavior of a plant or devices using Phase Change Materials (PCM) requires to know their thermophysical properties. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is a technic largely used to investigate them. However, under the pretext to experiment with small samples, some
[...] Read more.
Modeling the thermal behavior of a plant or devices using Phase Change Materials (PCM) requires to know their thermophysical properties. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is a technic largely used to investigate them. However, under the pretext to experiment with small samples, some authors consider the DSC curves as directly representing the properties of the materials without realizing that this interpretation is very often incompatible with the thermodynamics laws: as an example, although a pure substance melts at a fixed temperature T F , it is proposed a melting through a temperature range higher than T F and depending on the experiments (heating rates, sample masses...), for solutions the suggested characteristic temperatures are incompatible with the phase diagram, and also a hysteresis phenomenon is invented... In this paper, we demonstrate by a model coupling thermodynamics and conduction heat transfers, that the DSC curves are exactly compatible with the thermodynamics of phase changes (melting at fixed temperature for pure substances, in conformity with phase diagrams for solutions...). The cases of pure substances, saline solutions, substances with impurities or solid solutions are detailed. We indicate which information can, however, be given by the curves. We also propose a more sophisticated method by inverse calculations to determine the specific enthalpy whose all the thermodynamical properties can be deduced. Finally, we give some indications to understand and use the results indicating supercooling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Change Material (PCM) 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Attenuation of Temperature Fluctuations on an External Surface of the Wall by a Phase Change Material-Activated Layer
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010011
Received: 29 October 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
Periodical changes of temperature on an external surface of building envelope, e.g., thermal stress or excessive heat gains, is often an undesirable phenomenon. The idea proposed and described in the following paper is to stabilize the external surface temperature in a period of
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Periodical changes of temperature on an external surface of building envelope, e.g., thermal stress or excessive heat gains, is often an undesirable phenomenon. The idea proposed and described in the following paper is to stabilize the external surface temperature in a period of significant heat gains by the originally developed, novel composite modified by phase change material (PCM) and applied as an external, thin finishing plaster layer. The PCM composite is made from porous, granulated perlite soaked with paraffin wax (Tm = 25 °C) and macro-encapsulated by synthetic resin. The effect of temperature attenuation was estimated for two designated periods of time—the heat gains season (HGS) and the heat losses season (HLS). The attenuation coefficient (AC) was proposed as evaluation parameter of isothermal storage of heat gains determining the reduction of temperature fluctuations. The maximum registered temperature of an external surface for a standard insulation layer was around 20 K higher than for the case modified by PCM. The calculated values of AC were relatively constant during HGS and around two times lower for PCM case. The obtained results confirmed that the proposed modification of an external partition by equipped with additional PCM layer can be effectively used to minimize temperature variations and heat flux in the heat gains season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Change Material (PCM) 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Improving Performance of Cold-Chain Insulated Container with Phase Change Material: An Experimental Investigation
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(12), 1288; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7121288
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
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Abstract
The cold-chain transportation is an important means to ensure the drug and food safety. An cold-chain insulated container incorporating with Phase Change Material (PCM) has been developed for a temperature-controlled transportation in the range of 2~8 °C. The container configuration and different preconditioning
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The cold-chain transportation is an important means to ensure the drug and food safety. An cold-chain insulated container incorporating with Phase Change Material (PCM) has been developed for a temperature-controlled transportation in the range of 2~8 °C. The container configuration and different preconditioning methods have been determined to realize a 72-h transportation under extremely high, extremely low, and alternating temperature conditions. The experimental results showed that the temperature-controlled time was extended from 1 h to more than 80 h and the internal temperature maintained at 4~5 °C by using a PCM with a melting/freezing point of 5 °C, while the container presented a subcooling effect in a range of −1~2 °C when using water as PCM. The experimental values of the temperature-controlled time agreed well with the theoretical values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Change Material (PCM) 2017)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Energy Saving Potential of PCMs in Buildings under Future Climate Conditions
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(12), 1219; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7121219
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 25 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4065 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy consumption reduction under changing climate conditions is a major challenge in buildings design, where excessive energy consumption creates an economic and environmental burden. Improving thermal performance of the buildings through support applying phase change material (PCM) is a promising strategy for reducing
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Energy consumption reduction under changing climate conditions is a major challenge in buildings design, where excessive energy consumption creates an economic and environmental burden. Improving thermal performance of the buildings through support applying phase change material (PCM) is a promising strategy for reducing building energy consumption under future climate change. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the energy saving potentials in buildings under future climate conditions in the humid and snowy regions in the hot continental and humid subtropical climates of the east Asia (Seoul, Tokyo and Hong Kong) when various PCMs with different phase change temperatures are applied to a lightweight building envelope. Methodology in this work is implemented in two phases: firstly, investigation of energy saving potentials in buildings through inclusion of three types of PCMs with different phase temperatures into the building envelop separately and use weather file in the present (2017); and, secondly, evaluation of the effect of future climate change on the performance of PCMs by analyzing energy saving potentials of PCMs with 2020, 2050 and 2080 weather data. The results show that the inclusion of PCM into the building envelope is a promising strategy to increase the energy performance in buildings during both heating and cooling seasons in Seoul, Tokyo and Hong Kong under future climate conditions. The energy savings achieved by using PCMs in those regions are electricity savings of 4.48–8.21%, 3.81–9.69%, and 1.94–5.15%, and gas savings of 1.65–16.59%, 7.60–61.76%), and 62.07–93.33% in Seoul, Tokyo and Hong Kong, respectively, for the years 2017, 2020, 2050 and 2080. In addition, BioPCM and RUBITHERMPCM are the most efficient for improving thermal performance and saving energy in buildings in the tested regions and years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Change Material (PCM) 2017)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Comparison of Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials Prepared at Laboratory Containing the Same Core and Different Shell Material
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(7), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7070723
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3203 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials (MPCM) are widely used in active and passive systems for thermal energy storage. To evaluate the strength of a proper shell/PCM system, comparisons were performed between laboratory-prepared MPCM samples produced by in situ polymerization with a phase change temperature
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Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials (MPCM) are widely used in active and passive systems for thermal energy storage. To evaluate the strength of a proper shell/PCM system, comparisons were performed between laboratory-prepared MPCM samples produced by in situ polymerization with a phase change temperature of 50 °C and a particle size of around 1–2 μm with tetracosane as PCM, and polystyrene (PS) and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as shells. Evaluation of mechanical performance was performed for different samples by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) at different temperatures (23 °C and 60 °C) and with different encapsulation ratios (1:3 and 1:1, shell:core) in order to compare their properties with the PCM below and above its phase change. Evaluations of the Effective Young’s modulus (E) and deformation properties were performed for both types of MPCM. For an encapsulation mass ratio of 1:3, PS has better mechanical properties because, when increasing the temperature, the E decreases less than with PMMA. In the comparison between PS/tetracosane systems with different encapsulation mass ratios (1:3 and 1:1), E values were higher for the 1:3 encapsulation mass ratio at both temperatures under study. This means that, in terms of mechanical and thermal properties, the best combination core/shell/encapsulation mass ratio is PS/tetracosane/1:3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Change Material (PCM) 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Phase Change Material Selection for Thermal Processes Working under Partial Load Operating Conditions in the Temperature Range between 120 and 200 °C
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(7), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7070722
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 9 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2322 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In some processes, latent heat thermal energy storage (TES) systems might work under partial load operating conditions (the available thermal energy source is discontinuous or insufficient to completely charge the phase change material (PCM)). Therefore, there is a need to study how these
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In some processes, latent heat thermal energy storage (TES) systems might work under partial load operating conditions (the available thermal energy source is discontinuous or insufficient to completely charge the phase change material (PCM)). Therefore, there is a need to study how these conditions affect the discharge process to design a control strategy that can benefit the user of these systems. The aim of this paper is to show and perform at laboratory scale the selection of a PCM, with a phase change temperature between 120 and 200 °C, which will be further used in an experimental facility. Beyond the typical PCM properties, sixteen PCMs are studied here from the cycling and thermal stability point of view, as well as from the health hazard point of view. After 100 melting and freezing cycles, seven candidates out of the sixteen present a suitable cycling stability behaviour and five of them show a maximum thermal-stable temperature higher than 200 °C. Two final candidates for the partial loads approach are found in this temperature range, named high density polyethylene (HDPE) and adipic acid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Change Material (PCM) 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Synergistically-Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Shape-Stabilized Phase Change Materials by Expanded Graphite and Carbon Nanotube
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(6), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7060574
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4931 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The thermal conductivity of expanded graphite plate (EGP) and/or multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-filled, shape-stabilized, phase change material (SSPCM), based on paraffin, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and styrene-butadiene-styrene copolymer (SBS), was investigated. The results demonstrated that both EGP and MWCNT increased the thermal conductivity of
[...] Read more.
The thermal conductivity of expanded graphite plate (EGP) and/or multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-filled, shape-stabilized, phase change material (SSPCM), based on paraffin, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and styrene-butadiene-styrene copolymer (SBS), was investigated. The results demonstrated that both EGP and MWCNT increased the thermal conductivity of the SSPCM. EGP showed a greater thermal conductivity improvement than MWCNT. The conductivity of EGP-filled SSPCM reached 0.574 W/mK at 9 wt %, while that of MWCNT was just 0.372 W/mK at the same loading. Furthermore a series of EGP/MWCNT hybrid fillers were prepared and introduced into the SSPCM, and a synergistic effect was observed between the two fillers. When the EGP/MWCNT ratio was 8:2, the most significant thermal conductivity enhancement to the SSPCM was obtained. The thermal conductivity was 0.674 W/mK, 288% that of the SSPCM and 117% that of 9 wt % EGP-filled SSPCM. The SEM photos showed that a bridging of two-dimensional (2D) planar EGP by flexible one-dimensional (1D) MWCNT was constructed. The so-formed EGP-MWCNT network favored heat transfer along it and led to a decreased thermal interface resistance due to the increased EGP-MWCNT junctions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Change Material (PCM) 2017)
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