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Special Issue "Utilisation of By-Product Materials in Concrete"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 October 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Prabir K. Sarker

Department of Civil Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Concrete materials; Reinforced concrete structures; sustainable use of by-products in concrete; geopolymer concrete; durability of concrete

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Various industrial by-products have been utilized as construction materials for decades. The proper use of by-products can enhance environmental-friendliness, durability, and cost effectiveness of construction. The recycling of resources is receiving more importance in recent years, more than ever before, in order to improve the sustainability of the construction sector. Therefore, the worldwide research activity in this area has also increased. This includes research on the use of recycled construction and demolition products, recycled tyre, fly ash, granulated slag, various mining by-products, by-product nano materials, fibres, etc., in concrete and geotechnical applications.

The main aim of this Special Issue is to cover the most recent developments in applications of by-product materials in concrete. This includes short- and long-term material behaviors, structural applications, design of materials and structures, and microstructural analysis.

In this Special Issue, I would like to invite authors to publish research articles or comprehensive reviews on the topic.

Dr. Prabir K. Sarker
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Ÿ   Supplementary cementing materials such as fly ash, slags, silica fume
  • Ÿ   Recycled aggregates
  • Ÿ   Geopolymer concrete
  • Ÿ   Concrete mix designs
  • Ÿ   Durability of concrete
  • Ÿ   Fibre reinforced concrete
  • Ÿ   Reinforced concrete design
  • Ÿ   Concrete admixtures

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Sustainability, Eco-Point and Engineering Performance of Different Workability OPC Fly-Ash Mortar Mixes
Materials 2016, 9(5), 341; doi:10.3390/ma9050341
Received: 12 October 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2016 / Accepted: 25 April 2016 / Published: 6 May 2016
PDF Full-text (3777 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigates the engineering performance and CO2 footprint of mortar mixers by replacing Portland cement with 10%, 20%, 40% and 60% fly ash, a common industrial waste material. Samples of self-compacting mortar (SCM) were prepared with four different water/binder ratios and
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This study investigates the engineering performance and CO2 footprint of mortar mixers by replacing Portland cement with 10%, 20%, 40% and 60% fly ash, a common industrial waste material. Samples of self-compacting mortar (SCM) were prepared with four different water/binder ratios and varying dosages of superplasticizer to give three ranges of workability, i.e., normal, high and self-compacting mortar mix. The engineering performance was assessed in term of compressive strength after designated curing periods for all mixes. CO2 footprint was the environmental impact indicator of each production stage. The optimum mix obtained was at 10% replacement rate for all mixes. Total production emission reduced by 56% when the fly ash replacement rate increased from 0% to 60% (maximum). This is translated to a reduction of 80% in eco-points (assuming that the energy consumption rate of production with 0% fly ash is at 100%). Such re-utilization is encouraged since it is able to reduce possible soil toxicity due to sulfur leaching by 5% to 27% and landfill area by 15% to 91% on average. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilisation of By-Product Materials in Concrete)
Open AccessArticle Effectiveness of Fiber Reinforcement on the Mechanical Properties and Shrinkage Cracking of Recycled Fine Aggregate Concrete
Materials 2016, 9(3), 131; doi:10.3390/ma9030131
Received: 10 October 2015 / Revised: 14 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6956 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an experimental study conducted to investigate the effect of fiber reinforcement on the mechanical properties and shrinkage cracking of recycled fine aggregate concrete (RFAC) with two types of fiber—polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and nylon. A small fiber volume fraction, such as
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This paper presents an experimental study conducted to investigate the effect of fiber reinforcement on the mechanical properties and shrinkage cracking of recycled fine aggregate concrete (RFAC) with two types of fiber—polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and nylon. A small fiber volume fraction, such as 0.05% or 0.1%, in RFAC with polyvinyl alcohol or nylon fibers was used for optimum efficiency in minimum quantity. Additionally, to make a comparative evaluation of the mechanical properties and shrinkage cracking, we examined natural fine aggregate concrete as well. The test results revealed that the addition of fibers and fine aggregates plays an important role in improving the mechanical performance of the investigated concrete specimens as well as controlling their cracking behavior. The mechanical properties such as compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and flexural strength of fiber-reinforced RFAC were slightly better than those of non-fiber-reinforced RFAC. The shrinkage cracking behavior was examined using plat-ring-type and slab-type tests. The fiber-reinforced RFAC showed a greater reduction in the surface cracks than non-fiber-reinforced concrete. The addition of fibers at a small volume fraction in RFAC is more effective for drying shrinkage cracks than for improving mechanical performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilisation of By-Product Materials in Concrete)
Open AccessArticle Increased Durability of Concrete Made with Fine Recycled Concrete Aggregates Using Superplasticizers
Materials 2016, 9(2), 98; doi:10.3390/ma9020098
Received: 11 December 2015 / Accepted: 27 January 2016 / Published: 8 February 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (11620 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper evaluates the influence of two superplasticizers (SP) on the durability properties of concrete made with fine recycled concrete aggregate (FRCA). For this purpose, three families of concrete were tested: concrete without SP, concrete made with a regular superplasticizer and concrete made
[...] Read more.
This paper evaluates the influence of two superplasticizers (SP) on the durability properties of concrete made with fine recycled concrete aggregate (FRCA). For this purpose, three families of concrete were tested: concrete without SP, concrete made with a regular superplasticizer and concrete made with a high-performance superplasticizer. Five volumetric replacement ratios of natural sand by FRCA were tested: 0%, 10%, 30%, 50% and 100%. Two natural gravels were used as coarse aggregates. All mixes had the same particle size distribution, cement content and amount of superplasticizer. The w/c ratio was calibrated to obtain similar slump. The results showed that the incorporation of FRCA increased the water absorption by immersion, the water absorption by capillary action, the carbonation depth and the chloride migration coefficient, while the use of superplasticizers highly improved these properties. The incorporation of FRCA jeopardized the SP’s effectiveness. This research demonstrated that, from a durability point of view, the simultaneous incorporation of FRCA and high-performance SP is a viable sustainable solution for structural concrete production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilisation of By-Product Materials in Concrete)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of Pozzolanic Reaction in Nanosilica-Cement Blended Pastes Based on Solid-State Kinetic Models and 29Si MAS NMR
Materials 2016, 9(2), 99; doi:10.3390/ma9020099
Received: 5 October 2015 / Accepted: 21 January 2016 / Published: 6 February 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1833 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The incorporation of pozzolanic materials in concrete has many beneficial effects to enhance the mechanical properties of concrete. The calcium silicate hydrates in cement matrix of concrete increase by pozzolanic reaction of silicates and calcium hydroxide. The fine pozzolanic particles fill spaces between
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The incorporation of pozzolanic materials in concrete has many beneficial effects to enhance the mechanical properties of concrete. The calcium silicate hydrates in cement matrix of concrete increase by pozzolanic reaction of silicates and calcium hydroxide. The fine pozzolanic particles fill spaces between clinker grains, thereby resulting in a denser cement matrix and interfacial transition zone between cement matrix and aggregates; this lowers the permeability and increases the compressive strength of concrete. In this study, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) was mixed with 1% and 3% nanosilica by weight to produce cement pastes with water to binder ratio (w/b) of 0.45. The specimens were cured for 7 days. 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments are conducted and conversion fraction of nanosilica is extracted. The results are compared with a solid-state kinetic model. It seems that pozzolanic reaction of nanosilica depends on the concentration of calcium hydroxide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilisation of By-Product Materials in Concrete)
Open AccessArticle Effects on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Porous Concrete for Plant Growth of Blast Furnace Slag, Natural Jute Fiber, and Styrene Butadiene Latex Using a Dry Mixing Manufacturing Process
Materials 2016, 9(2), 84; doi:10.3390/ma9020084
Received: 10 October 2015 / Revised: 4 January 2016 / Accepted: 21 January 2016 / Published: 29 January 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1664 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To evaluate the effects of industrial by-products materials on the performance of porous concrete for plant growth, this study investigated the physical, strength, and freeze/thaw resistances of porous concrete for plant growth, prepared by replacing cement with blast furnace slag powder at 60%
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To evaluate the effects of industrial by-products materials on the performance of porous concrete for plant growth, this study investigated the physical, strength, and freeze/thaw resistances of porous concrete for plant growth, prepared by replacing cement with blast furnace slag powder at 60% by weight, and replacing natural stone aggregates with coarse blast furnace slag aggregates at rates of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 100% by weight. In addition, the effects of adding natural jute fiber and styrene butadiene (SB) latex to these concrete mixtures were evaluated. The void ratio, compressive strength, and freeze/thaw resistance of the samples were measured. With increasing replacement rate of blast furnace aggregates, addition of latex, and mixing of natural jute fiber the void ratio of the concrete was increased. Compressive strength decreased as the replacement rate of blast-furnace slag aggregates increased. The compressive strength decreased after 100 freeze/thaw cycles, regardless of the replacement rate of blast furnace slag aggregates or of the addition of natural jute fiber and latex. The addition of natural jute fiber and latex decreased the compressive strength after 100 freeze/thaw cycles. The test results indicate that the control mixture satisfied the target compressive strength of 10 MPa and the target void ratio of 25% at replacement rates of 0% and 20% for blast furnace aggregates, and that the mixtures containing latex satisfied the criteria up to an aggregate replacement rate of 60%. However, the mixtures containing natural jute fiber did not satisfy these criteria. The relationship between void ratio and residual compressive strength after 100 freeze/thaw cycles indicates that the control mixture and the mixtures containing jute fiber at aggregate replacement rates of 20% and 40% satisfied the target void ratio of 25% and the target residual compressive strength of over 80% after 100 freeze/thaw cycles. The mixtures containing latex and aggregate replacement rates up to 60% satisfied the target void ratio and compressive strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilisation of By-Product Materials in Concrete)
Open AccessArticle Acoustic Behavior of Subfloor Lightweight Mortars Containing Micronized Poly (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate) (EVA)
Materials 2016, 9(1), 51; doi:10.3390/ma9010051
Received: 9 October 2015 / Revised: 15 November 2015 / Accepted: 25 November 2015 / Published: 15 January 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1529 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper aims to contribute to acoustical comfort in buildings by presenting a study about the polymer waste micronized poly (ethylene vinyl acetate) (EVA) to be used in mortars for impact sound insulation in subfloor systems. The evaluation method included physical, mechanical and
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This paper aims to contribute to acoustical comfort in buildings by presenting a study about the polymer waste micronized poly (ethylene vinyl acetate) (EVA) to be used in mortars for impact sound insulation in subfloor systems. The evaluation method included physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the mortar developed with three distinct thicknesses designs (3, 5, and 7 cm) with replacement percentage of the natural aggregate by 10%, 25%, and 50% EVA. Microscopy analysis showed the surface deposition of cement on EVA, with preservation of polymer porosity. The compressive creep test estimated long-term deformation, where the 10% EVA sample with a 7 cm thick mortar showed the lowest percentage deformation of its height. The impact noise test was performed with 50% EVA samples, reaching an impact sound insulation of 23 dB when the uncovered slab was compared with the 7 cm thick subfloor mortar. Polymer waste addition decreased the mortar compressive strength, and EVA displayed characteristics of an influential material to intensify other features of the composite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilisation of By-Product Materials in Concrete)
Open AccessArticle Influence of Blended Cements with Calcareous Fly Ash on Chloride Ion Migration and Carbonation Resistance of Concrete for Durable Structures
Materials 2016, 9(1), 18; doi:10.3390/ma9010018
Received: 9 October 2015 / Revised: 11 December 2015 / Accepted: 22 December 2015 / Published: 2 January 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (4204 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this paper is to examine the possible use of new blended cements containing calcareous fly ash in structural concrete, potentially adequate for structural elements of nuclear power plants. The investigation included five new cements made with different contents of non-clinker
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The objective of this paper is to examine the possible use of new blended cements containing calcareous fly ash in structural concrete, potentially adequate for structural elements of nuclear power plants. The investigation included five new cements made with different contents of non-clinker constituents: calcareous fly ash, siliceous fly ash, ground granulated blastfurnace slag, and a reference cement—ordinary Portland cement. The influence of innovative cements on the resistance of concrete to chloride and carbonation exposure was studied. Additionally, an evaluation of the microstructure was performed using optical microscopy on concrete thin sections. Test results revealed a substantial improvement of the resistance to chloride ion penetration into concrete containing blended cements. The resistance was higher for increased clinker replacement levels and increased with curing time. However, concrete made with blended cements exhibited higher depth of carbonation than the Portland cement concrete, except the Portland-fly ash cement with 14.3% of calcareous fly ash. The thin sections analysis confirmed the values of the carbonation depth obtained from the phenolphthalein test. Test results indicate the possible range of application for new cements containing calcareous fly ash. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilisation of By-Product Materials in Concrete)
Open AccessArticle Sustainable High Quality Recycling of Aggregates from Waste-to-Energy, Treated in a Wet Bottom Ash Processing Installation, for Use in Concrete Products
Materials 2016, 9(1), 9; doi:10.3390/ma9010009
Received: 9 October 2015 / Revised: 8 December 2015 / Accepted: 21 December 2015 / Published: 25 December 2015
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Abstract
Nowadays, more efforts towards sustainability are required from the concrete industry. Replacing traditional aggregates by recycled bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration can contribute to this goal. Until now, only partial replacement has been considered to keep the concrete workability, strength
[...] Read more.
Nowadays, more efforts towards sustainability are required from the concrete industry. Replacing traditional aggregates by recycled bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration can contribute to this goal. Until now, only partial replacement has been considered to keep the concrete workability, strength and durability under control. In this research, the feasibility of a full aggregate replacement was investigated for producing prefabricated Lego bricks. It was found that the required compressive strength class for this purpose (C20/25) could be achieved. Nevertheless, a thorough understanding of the BA properties is needed to overcome other issues. As BA is highly absorptive, the concrete’s water demand is high. This workability issue can be dealt with by subjecting the fine BA fraction to a crushing operation to eliminate the porous elements and by pre-wetting the fine and coarse BA fractions in a controlled manner. In addition, a reactive NaOH washing is needed to avoid formation of longitudinal voids and the resulting expansion due to the metallic aluminum present in the BA. Regarding the long-term behavior, heavy metal leaching and freeze-thaw exposure are not problematic, though there is susceptibility to acetic and lactic acid attack and maybe increased sensitivity to alkali-silica reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilisation of By-Product Materials in Concrete)
Open AccessArticle Utilization of Palm Oil Clinker as Cement Replacement Material
Materials 2015, 8(12), 8817-8838; doi:10.3390/ma8125494
Received: 28 July 2015 / Revised: 2 December 2015 / Accepted: 7 December 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (6935 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The utilization of waste materials from the palm oil industry provides immense benefit to various sectors of the construction industry. Palm oil clinker is a by-product from the processing stages of palm oil goods. Channelling this waste material into the building industry helps
[...] Read more.
The utilization of waste materials from the palm oil industry provides immense benefit to various sectors of the construction industry. Palm oil clinker is a by-product from the processing stages of palm oil goods. Channelling this waste material into the building industry helps to promote sustainability besides overcoming waste disposal problems. Environmental pollution due to inappropriate waste management system can also be drastically reduced. In this study, cement was substituted with palm oil clinker powder as a binder material in self-compacting mortar. The fresh, hardened and microstructure properties were evaluated throughout this study. In addition, sustainability component analysis was also carried out to assess the environmental impact of introducing palm oil clinker powder as a replacement material for cement. It can be inferred that approximately 3.3% of cement production can be saved by substituting palm oil clinker powder with cement. Reducing the utilization of cement through a high substitution level of this waste material will also help to reduce carbon emissions by 52%. A cleaner environment free from pollutants can be created to ensure healthier living. Certain industries may benefit through the inclusion of this waste material as the cost and energy consumption of the product can be minimized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilisation of By-Product Materials in Concrete)
Open AccessArticle Prediction of the Chloride Resistance of Concrete Modified with High Calcium Fly Ash Using Machine Learning
Materials 2015, 8(12), 8714-8727; doi:10.3390/ma8125483
Received: 9 October 2015 / Revised: 16 November 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 11 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (519 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the study was to generate rules for the prediction of the chloride resistance of concrete modified with high calcium fly ash using machine learning methods. The rapid chloride permeability test, according to the Nordtest Method Build 492, was used for
[...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to generate rules for the prediction of the chloride resistance of concrete modified with high calcium fly ash using machine learning methods. The rapid chloride permeability test, according to the Nordtest Method Build 492, was used for determining the chloride ions’ penetration in concrete containing high calcium fly ash (HCFA) for partial replacement of Portland cement. The results of the performed tests were used as the training set to generate rules describing the relation between material composition and the chloride resistance. Multiple methods for rule generation were applied and compared. The rules generated by algorithm J48 from the Weka workbench provided the means for adequate classification of plain concretes and concretes modified with high calcium fly ash as materials of good, acceptable or unacceptable resistance to chloride penetration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilisation of By-Product Materials in Concrete)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Medium Temperature and Industrial By-Products on the Key Hardened Properties of High Performance Concrete
Materials 2015, 8(12), 8608-8623; doi:10.3390/ma8125464
Received: 10 October 2015 / Revised: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 25 November 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1815 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the work reported in this article was to investigate the effects of medium temperature and industrial by-products on the key hardened properties of high performance concrete. Four concrete mixes were prepared based on a water-to-binder ratio of 0.35. Two industrial
[...] Read more.
The aim of the work reported in this article was to investigate the effects of medium temperature and industrial by-products on the key hardened properties of high performance concrete. Four concrete mixes were prepared based on a water-to-binder ratio of 0.35. Two industrial by-products, silica fume and Class F fly ash, were used separately and together with normal portland cement to produce three concrete mixes in addition to the control mix. The properties of both fresh and hardened concretes were examined in the laboratory. The freshly mixed concrete mixes were tested for slump, slump flow, and V-funnel flow. The hardened concretes were tested for compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity after exposing to 20, 35 and 50 °C. In addition, the initial surface absorption and the rate of moisture movement into the concretes were determined at 20 °C. The performance of the concretes in the fresh state was excellent due to their superior deformability and good segregation resistance. In their hardened state, the highest levels of compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity were produced by silica fume concrete. In addition, silica fume concrete showed the lowest level of initial surface absorption and the lowest rate of moisture movement into the interior of concrete. In comparison, the compressive strength, dynamic modulus of elasticity, initial surface absorption, and moisture movement rate of silica fume-fly ash concrete were close to those of silica fume concrete. Moreover, all concretes provided relatively low compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity when they were exposed to 50 °C. However, the effect of increased temperature was less detrimental for silica fume and silica fume-fly ash concretes in comparison with the control concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilisation of By-Product Materials in Concrete)
Open AccessArticle Global Warming Implications of the Use of By-Products and Recycled Materials in Western Australia’s Housing Sector
Materials 2015, 8(10), 6909-6925; doi:10.3390/ma8105347
Received: 11 September 2015 / Revised: 25 September 2015 / Accepted: 7 October 2015 / Published: 12 October 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2041 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Western Australia’s housing sector is growing rapidly and around half a million houses are expected to be built by 2030, which not only will result in increased energy and resources demand but will have socio-economic impacts. Majority of Western Australians live in detached
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Western Australia’s housing sector is growing rapidly and around half a million houses are expected to be built by 2030, which not only will result in increased energy and resources demand but will have socio-economic impacts. Majority of Western Australians live in detached houses made of energy intensive clay bricks, which have a high potential to generate construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Therefore, there is a need to look into the use of alternative materials and construction methods. Due to Western Australia’s temperate climate, concrete could not only offer a comfortable living space but an operational energy saving also can be achieved. This paper has assessed the global warming implications of cast in-situ concrete sandwich wall system as an alternative to clay brick walls (CBW) with partial replacement of cement in concrete with by-products such as fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), natural aggregate (NA) with recycled crushed aggregate (RCA), natural sand (NS) with manufactured sand (MS) and, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foam core as a replacement to polystyrene core for construction of a typical 4 × 2 × 2 detached house in Perth. Life cycle management (LCM) approach has been used to determine global warming reduction benefits due to the use of available by-products and recycled materials in Western Australian houses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilisation of By-Product Materials in Concrete)
Open AccessArticle Inhibitory Effect of Waste Glass Powder on ASR Expansion Induced by Waste Glass Aggregate
Materials 2015, 8(10), 6849-6862; doi:10.3390/ma8105344
Received: 18 July 2015 / Revised: 21 September 2015 / Accepted: 28 September 2015 / Published: 9 October 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (8151 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Detailed research is carried out to ascertain the inhibitory effect of waste glass powder (WGP) on alkali-silica reaction (ASR) expansion induced by waste glass aggregate in this paper. The alkali reactivity of waste glass aggregate is examined by two methods in accordance with
[...] Read more.
Detailed research is carried out to ascertain the inhibitory effect of waste glass powder (WGP) on alkali-silica reaction (ASR) expansion induced by waste glass aggregate in this paper. The alkali reactivity of waste glass aggregate is examined by two methods in accordance with the China Test Code SL352-2006. The potential of WGP to control the ASR expansion is determined in terms of mean diameter, specific surface area, content of WGP and curing temperature. Two mathematical models are developed to estimate the inhibitory efficiency of WGP. These studies show that there is ASR risk with an ASR expansion rate over 0.2% when the sand contains more than 30% glass aggregate. However, WGP can effectively control the ASR expansion and inhibit the expansion rate induced by the glass aggregate to be under 0.1%. The two mathematical models have good simulation results, which can be used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of WGP on ASR risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilisation of By-Product Materials in Concrete)
Open AccessArticle Feasibility Studies of Palm Oil Mill Waste Aggregates for the Construction Industry
Materials 2015, 8(9), 6508-6530; doi:10.3390/ma8095319
Received: 28 July 2015 / Revised: 10 September 2015 / Accepted: 15 September 2015 / Published: 22 September 2015
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (6693 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The agricultural industry in Malaysia has grown rapidly over the years. Palm oil clinker (POC) is a byproduct obtained from the palm oil industry. Its lightweight properties allows for its utilization as an aggregate, while in powder form as a filler material in
[...] Read more.
The agricultural industry in Malaysia has grown rapidly over the years. Palm oil clinker (POC) is a byproduct obtained from the palm oil industry. Its lightweight properties allows for its utilization as an aggregate, while in powder form as a filler material in concrete. POC specimens obtained throughout each state in Malaysia were investigated to evaluate the physical, chemical, and microstructure characteristics. Variations between each state were determined and their possible contributory factors were assessed. POC were incorporated as a replacement material for aggregates and their engineering characteristics were ascertained. Almost 7% of density was reduced with the introduction of POC as aggregates. A sustainability assessment was made through greenhouse gas emission (GHG) and cost factor analyses to determine the contribution of the addition of POC to the construction industry. Addition of POC helps to lower the GHG emission by 9.6% compared to control specimens. By channeling this waste into the construction industry, an efficient waste-management system can be promoted; thus, creating a cleaner environment. This study is also expected to offer some guides and directions for upcoming research works on the incorporation of POC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilisation of By-Product Materials in Concrete)
Open AccessArticle Behaviour of Passive Fire Protection K-Geopolymer under Successive Severe Fire Incidents
Materials 2015, 8(9), 6096-6104; doi:10.3390/ma8095294
Received: 18 July 2015 / Revised: 10 August 2015 / Accepted: 31 August 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (902 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The performance of a fire resistant coating for tunnel passive fire protection under successive severe thermal loading is presented. The material falls under the class of potassium based geopolymers (K-geopolymer) and was prepared by mixing ferronickel (FeNi) slag, doped with pure alumina, with
[...] Read more.
The performance of a fire resistant coating for tunnel passive fire protection under successive severe thermal loading is presented. The material falls under the class of potassium based geopolymers (K-geopolymer) and was prepared by mixing ferronickel (FeNi) slag, doped with pure alumina, with a highly alkaline potassium hydroxide aqueous phase. Its performance was assessed by subjecting a concrete slab with a five cm thick K-geopolymer coating layer into successive RijksWaterStaat (RWS) fire incidents. During the first test, the maximum measured temperature in the K-geopolymer/concrete interface was 250 °C, which is 130 °C lower than the RWS test requirement, while, during the second fire test, the maximum temperature was almost 370 °C, which is still lower than the RWS requirement proving the effectiveness of the material as a thermal barrier. In addition, the material retained its structural integrity, during and after the two tests, without showing any mechanical or thermal damages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilisation of By-Product Materials in Concrete)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Hardening High-Calcium Fly Ash Blended Concrete
Materials 2015, 8(9), 5933-5952; doi:10.3390/ma8095282
Received: 25 May 2015 / Revised: 7 July 2015 / Accepted: 13 July 2015 / Published: 7 September 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1625 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High-calcium fly ash (FH) is the combustion residue from electric power plants burning lignite or sub-bituminous coal. As a mineral admixture, FH can be used to produce high-strength concrete and high-performance concrete. The development of chemical and mechanical properties is a crucial factor
[...] Read more.
High-calcium fly ash (FH) is the combustion residue from electric power plants burning lignite or sub-bituminous coal. As a mineral admixture, FH can be used to produce high-strength concrete and high-performance concrete. The development of chemical and mechanical properties is a crucial factor for appropriately using FH in the concrete industry. To achieve sustainable development in the concrete industry, this paper presents a theoretical model to systematically evaluate the property developments of FH blended concrete. The proposed model analyzes the cement hydration, the reaction of free CaO in FH, and the reaction of phases in FH other than free CaO. The mutual interactions among cement hydration, the reaction of free CaO in FH, and the reaction of other phases in FH are also considered through the calcium hydroxide contents and the capillary water contents. Using the hydration degree of cement, the reaction degree of free CaO in FH, and the reaction degree of other phases in FH, the proposed model evaluates the calcium hydroxide contents, the reaction degree of FH, chemically bound water, porosity, and the compressive strength of hardening concrete with different water to binder ratios and FH replacement ratios. The evaluated results are compared to experimental results, and good consistencies are found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilisation of By-Product Materials in Concrete)
Open AccessArticle Recyclability of Concrete Pavement Incorporating High Volume of Fly Ash
Materials 2015, 8(8), 5479-5489; doi:10.3390/ma8085260
Received: 27 July 2015 / Revised: 14 August 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (338 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recyclable concrete pavement was made from fly ash and crushed limestone sand and gravel as aggregates so that the concrete pavement could be recycled to raw materials for cement production. With the aim to use as much fly ash as possible for the
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Recyclable concrete pavement was made from fly ash and crushed limestone sand and gravel as aggregates so that the concrete pavement could be recycled to raw materials for cement production. With the aim to use as much fly ash as possible for the sustainable development of society, while achieving adequate strength development, pavement concrete having a cement-replacement ratio of 40% by mass was experimentally investigated, focusing on the strength development at an early age. Limestone powder was added to improve the early strength; flexural strength at two days reached 3.5 MPa, the minimum strength for traffic service in Japan. The matured fly ash concrete made with a cement content of 200 kg/m3 achieved a flexural strength almost equal to that of the control concrete without fly ash. Additionally, Portland cement made from the tested fly ash concrete was tested to confirm recyclability, with the cement quality meeting the Japanese classification of ordinary Portland cement. Limestone-based recyclable fly ash concrete pavement is, thus, a preferred material in terms of sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilisation of By-Product Materials in Concrete)

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