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Materials 2016, 9(5), 341; doi:10.3390/ma9050341

Sustainability, Eco-Point and Engineering Performance of Different Workability OPC Fly-Ash Mortar Mixes

StrucHMRS Group, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
UTM Construction Research Centre (UTM CRC), Institute for Smart Infrastructure and Innovative Construction (ISIIC), Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Malaysia
Faculty of Civil and Environment Engineering, University of Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Prabir Sarker
Received: 12 October 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2016 / Accepted: 25 April 2016 / Published: 6 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilisation of By-Product Materials in Concrete)


This study investigates the engineering performance and CO2 footprint of mortar mixers by replacing Portland cement with 10%, 20%, 40% and 60% fly ash, a common industrial waste material. Samples of self-compacting mortar (SCM) were prepared with four different water/binder ratios and varying dosages of superplasticizer to give three ranges of workability, i.e., normal, high and self-compacting mortar mix. The engineering performance was assessed in term of compressive strength after designated curing periods for all mixes. CO2 footprint was the environmental impact indicator of each production stage. The optimum mix obtained was at 10% replacement rate for all mixes. Total production emission reduced by 56% when the fly ash replacement rate increased from 0% to 60% (maximum). This is translated to a reduction of 80% in eco-points (assuming that the energy consumption rate of production with 0% fly ash is at 100%). Such re-utilization is encouraged since it is able to reduce possible soil toxicity due to sulfur leaching by 5% to 27% and landfill area by 15% to 91% on average. View Full-Text
Keywords: engineering performance; environmental performance; CO2 footprint; optimum mix; eco-point engineering performance; environmental performance; CO2 footprint; optimum mix; eco-point

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Razi, P.Z.; Abdul Razak, H.; Khalid, N.H.A. Sustainability, Eco-Point and Engineering Performance of Different Workability OPC Fly-Ash Mortar Mixes. Materials 2016, 9, 341.

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