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Comparative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Proteins Putatively Involved in Toxin Biosynthesis in the Marine Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella
State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 November 2012; in revised form: 27 December 2012 / Accepted: 21 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
Abstract: Alexandrium is a neurotoxin-producing dinoflagellate genus resulting in paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. However, little is known about the toxin biosynthesis mechanism in Alexandrium. This study compared protein profiles of A. catenella collected at different toxin biosynthesis stages (non-toxin synthesis, initial toxin synthesis and toxin synthesizing) coupled with the cell cycle, and identified differentially expressed proteins using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. The results showed that toxin biosynthesis of A. catenella occurred within a defined time frame in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Proteomic analysis indicated that 102 protein spots altered significantly in abundance (P < 0.05), and 53 proteins were identified using database searching. These proteins were involved in a variety of biological processes, i.e., protein modification and biosynthesis, metabolism, cell division, oxidative stress, transport, signal transduction, and translation. Among them, nine proteins with known functions in paralytic shellfish toxin-producing cyanobacteria, i.e., methionine S-adenosyltransferase, chloroplast ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, S-adenosylhomocysteinase, adenosylhomocysteinase, ornithine carbamoyltransferase, inorganic pyrophosphatase, sulfotransferase (similar to), alcohol dehydrogenase and arginine deiminase, varied significantly at different toxin biosynthesis stages and formed an interaction network, indicating that they might be involved in toxin biosynthesis in A. catenella. This study is the first step in the dissection of the behavior of the A. catenella proteome during different toxin biosynthesis stages and provides new insights into toxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates.
Keywords: marine dinoflagellates; Alexandrium catenella; paralytic shellfish toxins; cell cycle; toxin biosynthesis; proteomics; mass spectrometry
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MDPI and ACS Style
Wang, D.-Z.; Gao, Y.; Lin, L.; Hong, H.-S. Comparative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Proteins Putatively Involved in Toxin Biosynthesis in the Marine Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 213-232.
Wang D-Z, Gao Y, Lin L, Hong H-S. Comparative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Proteins Putatively Involved in Toxin Biosynthesis in the Marine Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(1):213-232.
Wang, Da-Zhi; Gao, Yue; Lin, Lin; Hong, Hua-Sheng. 2013. "Comparative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Proteins Putatively Involved in Toxin Biosynthesis in the Marine Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 1: 213-232.