Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(1), 253-265; doi:10.3390/md11010253
Article

Quorum Sensing Inhibition by Asparagopsis taxiformis, a Marine Macro Alga: Separation of the Compound that Interrupts Bacterial Communication

1 Discipline of Marine Biotechnology and Ecology, CSIR — Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat, India 2 Research Unit Analytical Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany 3 Research Unit Microbe-Plant Interactions, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany 4 Analytical Food Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Alte Akademie 10, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2012; in revised form: 26 December 2012 / Accepted: 4 January 2013 / Published: 23 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Algae)
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Abstract: The majority of the marine algal species, though completing their life cycle in seawater, are rarely susceptible to fouling, making them an important source of quorum sensing (QS) inhibitory substances. The separation and characterization of QS inhibitors are crucial for any potential application. Thirty marine macroalgae were tested for QS inhibition activity by using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 as the reporter strain, and among them, Asparagopsis taxiformis showed antibacterial, as well as antiquorum, sensing activities. Cinnamaldehyde (75 mM) and methanol were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The antiquorum sensing activity of A. taxiformis was further confirmed using the sensor strain, Serratia liquefaciens MG44, having green fluorescent protein (gfp). Methanolic extract of the alga was fractionated by solid phase extraction (SPE), and each fraction was tested for QS inhibition. Two types of activities were observed—zone of clearance (antibacterial activity) and zone of inhibition with or without finger-like projections (QS inhibition). Out of five SPE cartridges, Bond Elut PH showed clear separation of these two fractions. The Ion Cyclotron Resonance Fourier Transformation Mass Spectrometer (ICR-FT/MS) analysis of the fractions further supported the bioassay results. The presence of strong QS inhibitory compound in A. taxiformis indicates its potential use in antifouling preparations.
Keywords: marine algae; quorum sensing inhibitor; acyl homoserine lactone (AHL); Chromobacterium violaceum; solid phase extraction

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jha, B.; Kavita, K.; Westphal, J.; Hartmann, A.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P. Quorum Sensing Inhibition by Asparagopsis taxiformis, a Marine Macro Alga: Separation of the Compound that Interrupts Bacterial Communication. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 253-265.

AMA Style

Jha B, Kavita K, Westphal J, Hartmann A, Schmitt-Kopplin P. Quorum Sensing Inhibition by Asparagopsis taxiformis, a Marine Macro Alga: Separation of the Compound that Interrupts Bacterial Communication. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(1):253-265.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jha, Bhavanath; Kavita, Kumari; Westphal, Jenny; Hartmann, Anton; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe. 2013. "Quorum Sensing Inhibition by Asparagopsis taxiformis, a Marine Macro Alga: Separation of the Compound that Interrupts Bacterial Communication." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 1: 253-265.

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