Special Issue "Retinoids in Development"

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A special issue of Journal of Developmental Biology (ISSN 2221-3759).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ramón Muñoz-Chápuli (Website)

Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Málaga, Spain
Phone: 0034-952-131853
Interests: cardiovascular developmental biology; vasculogenesis; angiogenesis; epithelial-mesenchymal transitions; Evo-Devo

Special Issue Information

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Developmental Biology is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. For the first couple of issues the Article Processing Charge (APC) will be waived for well-prepared manuscripts. English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Retinoic Acid, under Cerebrospinal Fluid Control, Induces Neurogenesis during Early Brain Development
J. Dev. Biol. 2014, 2(2), 72-83; doi:10.3390/jdb2020072
Received: 16 January 2014 / Revised: 6 March 2014 / Accepted: 18 March 2014 / Published: 8 April 2014
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Abstract
One of the more intriguing subjects in neuroscience is how a precursor or stem cell is induced to differentiate into a neuron. Neurogenesis begins early in brain development and suddenly becomes a very intense process, which is related with the influence of [...] Read more.
One of the more intriguing subjects in neuroscience is how a precursor or stem cell is induced to differentiate into a neuron. Neurogenesis begins early in brain development and suddenly becomes a very intense process, which is related with the influence of Retinoic Acid. Here, using a biological test (F9-1.8 cells) in chick embryos, we show that “in vivo” embryonic cerebrospinal fluid regulates mesencephalic-rombencephalic Isthmic Retinoic Acid synthesis and this effect has a direct influence on mesencephalic neuroepithelial precursors, inducing a significant increase in neurogenesis. This effect is mediated by the Retinol Binding Protein present in the embryonic cerebrospinal fluid. The knowledge of embryonic neurogenetic stimulus could be useful in the control of adult brain neurogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retinoids in Development)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Retinoic Acid and the Development of the Endoderm
J. Dev. Biol. 2015, 3(2), 25-56; doi:10.3390/jdb3020025
Received: 7 March 2015 / Revised: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 2 April 2015 / Published: 20 April 2015
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Abstract
Retinoic acid (RA) is an important signaling molecule in the development of the endoderm and an important molecule in protocols used to generate endodermal cell types from stem cells. In this review, we describe the RA signaling pathway and its role in [...] Read more.
Retinoic acid (RA) is an important signaling molecule in the development of the endoderm and an important molecule in protocols used to generate endodermal cell types from stem cells. In this review, we describe the RA signaling pathway and its role in the patterning and specification of the extra embryonic endoderm and different endodermal organs. The formation of endoderm is an ancient evolutionary feature and RA signaling appears to have coevolved with the vertebrate lineage. Towards that end, we describe how RA participates in many regulatory networks required for the formation of extraembryonic structures as well as the organs of the embryo proper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retinoids in Development)
Open AccessReview Retinoic Acid-Induced Epidermal Transdifferentiation in Skin
J. Dev. Biol. 2014, 2(3), 158-173; doi:10.3390/jdb2030158
Received: 12 March 2014 / Revised: 4 June 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 26 June 2014
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Abstract
Retinoids function as important regulatory signaling molecules during development, acting in cellular growth and differentiation both during embryogenesis and in the adult animal. In 1953, Fell and Mellanby first found that excess vitamin A can induce transdifferentiation of chick embryonic epidermis to [...] Read more.
Retinoids function as important regulatory signaling molecules during development, acting in cellular growth and differentiation both during embryogenesis and in the adult animal. In 1953, Fell and Mellanby first found that excess vitamin A can induce transdifferentiation of chick embryonic epidermis to a mucous epithelium (Fell, H.B.; Mellanby, E. Metaplasia produced in cultures of chick ectoderm by high vitamin A. J. Physiol. 1953, 119, 470–488). However, the molecular mechanism of this transdifferentiation process was unknown for a long time. Recent studies demonstrated that Gbx1, a divergent homeobox gene, is one of the target genes of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for this transdifferentiation. Furthermore, it was found that ATRA can induce the epidermal transdifferentiation into a mucosal epithelium in mammalian embryonic skin, as well as in chick embryonic skin. In the mammalian embryonic skin, the co-expression of Tgm2 and Gbx1 in the epidermis and an increase in TGF-β2 expression elicited by ATRA in the dermis are required for the mucosal transdifferentiation, which occurs through epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. Not only does retinoic acid (RA) play an important role in mucosal transdifferentiation, periderm desquamation, and barrier formation in the developing mammalian skin, but it is also involved in hair follicle downgrowth and bending by its effect on the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and on members of the Runx, Fox, and Sox transcription factor families. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retinoids in Development)
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Open AccessReview Retinoic Acid Signaling during Early Spinal Cord Development
J. Dev. Biol. 2014, 2(3), 174-197; doi:10.3390/jdb2030174
Received: 9 April 2014 / Revised: 18 June 2014 / Accepted: 18 June 2014 / Published: 26 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Retinoic acid signaling is required at several steps during the development of the spinal cord, from the specification of generic properties to the final acquisition of neuronal subtype identities, including its role in trunk neural crest development. These functions are associated with [...] Read more.
Retinoic acid signaling is required at several steps during the development of the spinal cord, from the specification of generic properties to the final acquisition of neuronal subtype identities, including its role in trunk neural crest development. These functions are associated with the production of retinoic acid in specific tissues and are highly dependent on context. Here, we review the defects associated with retinoic acid signaling manipulations, mostly in chick and mouse models, trying to separate the different processes where retinoic acid signaling is involved and to highlight common features, such as its ability to promote transitions along the neuronal differentiation cascade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retinoids in Development)
Open AccessReview Molecular Control of Interdigital Cell Death and Cell Differentiation by Retinoic Acid during Digit Development
J. Dev. Biol. 2014, 2(2), 138-157; doi:10.3390/jdb2020138
Received: 31 January 2014 / Revised: 14 April 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2035 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The precise coordination of cell death and cell differentiation during the formation of developing digits is essential for generating properly shaped limbs. Retinoic acid (RA) has a fundamental role in digit development; it promotes or inhibits the molecular expression of several critical [...] Read more.
The precise coordination of cell death and cell differentiation during the formation of developing digits is essential for generating properly shaped limbs. Retinoic acid (RA) has a fundamental role in digit development; it promotes or inhibits the molecular expression of several critical genes. This control of gene expression establishes molecular cascades that enable both the commencement of cell death and the inhibition of cell differentiation. In this review, we focus on the antagonistic functions between RA and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in the control of cell death and between RA and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling in the control of cell differentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retinoids in Development)
Open AccessReview Retinoids and Cardiac Development
J. Dev. Biol. 2014, 2(1), 50-71; doi:10.3390/jdb2010050
Received: 24 January 2014 / Revised: 18 March 2014 / Accepted: 18 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (817 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Retinoic acid (RA), a derivative of vitamin A, is involved in signal transduction during vertebrate organogenesis. Retinoids through binding to nuclear receptors called RA receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) regulate various processes during cardiogenesis. Deregulated retinoid signaling thus has later [...] Read more.
Retinoic acid (RA), a derivative of vitamin A, is involved in signal transduction during vertebrate organogenesis. Retinoids through binding to nuclear receptors called RA receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) regulate various processes during cardiogenesis. Deregulated retinoid signaling thus has later consequences leading to cardiac malformations. In this review, we will summarize and discuss our current knowledge on the role of RA signaling during heart development, especially during patterning of the heart fields. We have also integrated recent experiments essential for our understanding of the role of RA signaling during epicardial development and myocardial growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retinoids in Development)
Open AccessReview Checking the Pulse of Vitamin A Metabolism and Signaling during Mammalian Spermatogenesis
J. Dev. Biol. 2014, 2(1), 34-49; doi:10.3390/jdb2010034
Received: 15 January 2014 / Revised: 18 March 2014 / Accepted: 18 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
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Abstract
Vitamin A has been shown to be essential for a multitude of biological processes vital for mammalian development and homeostasis. Its active metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), is important for establishing and maintaining proper germ cell development. During spermatogenesis, the germ cells orient [...] Read more.
Vitamin A has been shown to be essential for a multitude of biological processes vital for mammalian development and homeostasis. Its active metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), is important for establishing and maintaining proper germ cell development. During spermatogenesis, the germ cells orient themselves in very distinct patterns, which have been organized into stages. There is evidence to show that, in the mouse, RA is needed for many steps during germ cell development. Interestingly, RA has been implicated as playing a role within the same two Stages: VII and VIII, where meiosis is initiated and spermiation occurs. The goal of this review is to outline this evidence, exploring the relevant players in retinoid metabolism, storage, transport, and signaling. Finally, this review will provide a potential model for how RA activity is organized across the murine stages of the spermatogenic cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retinoids in Development)
Open AccessReview Signaling by Retinoic Acid in Embryonic and Adult Hematopoiesis
J. Dev. Biol. 2014, 2(1), 18-33; doi:10.3390/jdb2010018
Received: 3 February 2014 / Revised: 5 March 2014 / Accepted: 6 March 2014 / Published: 17 March 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (711 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Embryonic and adult hematopoiesis are both finely regulated by a number of signaling mechanisms. In the mammalian embryo, short-term and long-term hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) arise from a subset of endothelial cells which constitute the hemogenic endothelium. These HSC expand and give [...] Read more.
Embryonic and adult hematopoiesis are both finely regulated by a number of signaling mechanisms. In the mammalian embryo, short-term and long-term hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) arise from a subset of endothelial cells which constitute the hemogenic endothelium. These HSC expand and give rise to all the lineages of blood cells in the fetal liver, first, and in the bone marrow from the end of the gestation and throughout the adult life. The retinoic acid (RA) signaling system, acting through the family of nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs and RXRs), is involved in multiple steps of the hematopoietic development, and also in the regulation of the differentiation of some myeloid lineages in adults. In humans, the importance of this RA-mediated control is dramatically illustrated by the pathogeny of acute promyelocytic leukemia, a disease produced by a chromosomal rearrangement fusing the RARa gene with other genes. The aberrant fusion protein is able to bind to RARα target gene promoters to actively suppress gene transcription. Lack of function of RARα leads to a failure in the differentiation of promyelocytic progenitors. In this review we have collected the available information about all the phases of the hematopoietic process in which RA signaling is involved, being essential for steps such as the emergence of HSC from the hemogenic endothelium, or modulating processes such as the adult granulopoiesis. A better knowledge of the RA-mediated signaling mechanisms can contribute to the knowledge of the origin of many pathologies of the hematopoietic system and can provide new clinical avenues for their treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retinoids in Development)

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