Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Retinoic Acid, under Cerebrospinal Fluid Control, Induces Neurogenesis during Early Brain Development
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Checking the Pulse of Vitamin A Metabolism and Signaling during Mammalian Spermatogenesis
J. Dev. Biol. 2014, 2(1), 50-71; doi:10.3390/jdb2010050
Review

Retinoids and Cardiac Development

* ,
 and
Received: 24 January 2014 / Revised: 18 March 2014 / Accepted: 18 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retinoids in Development)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [817 KB, 25 March 2014; original version 21 March 2014]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

Retinoic acid (RA), a derivative of vitamin A, is involved in signal transduction during vertebrate organogenesis. Retinoids through binding to nuclear receptors called RA receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) regulate various processes during cardiogenesis. Deregulated retinoid signaling thus has later consequences leading to cardiac malformations. In this review, we will summarize and discuss our current knowledge on the role of RA signaling during heart development, especially during patterning of the heart fields. We have also integrated recent experiments essential for our understanding of the role of RA signaling during epicardial development and myocardial growth.
Keywords: retinoic acid; heart development; cardiogenesis; second heart field; epicardium retinoic acid; heart development; cardiogenesis; second heart field; epicardium
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Zaffran, S.; Robrini, N.E.; Bertrand, N. Retinoids and Cardiac Development. J. Dev. Biol. 2014, 2, 50-71.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
J. Dev. Biol. EISSN 2221-3759 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert