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J. Dev. Biol. 2014, 2(1), 50-71; doi:10.3390/jdb2010050
Review

Retinoids and Cardiac Development

* ,
 and
Received: 24 January 2014; in revised form: 18 March 2014 / Accepted: 18 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retinoids in Development)
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Abstract: Retinoic acid (RA), a derivative of vitamin A, is involved in signal transduction during vertebrate organogenesis. Retinoids through binding to nuclear receptors called RA receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) regulate various processes during cardiogenesis. Deregulated retinoid signaling thus has later consequences leading to cardiac malformations. In this review, we will summarize and discuss our current knowledge on the role of RA signaling during heart development, especially during patterning of the heart fields. We have also integrated recent experiments essential for our understanding of the role of RA signaling during epicardial development and myocardial growth.
Keywords: retinoic acid; heart development; cardiogenesis; second heart field; epicardium retinoic acid; heart development; cardiogenesis; second heart field; epicardium
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zaffran, S.; Robrini, N.E.; Bertrand, N. Retinoids and Cardiac Development. J. Dev. Biol. 2014, 2, 50-71.

AMA Style

Zaffran S, Robrini NE, Bertrand N. Retinoids and Cardiac Development. Journal of Developmental Biology. 2014; 2(1):50-71.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zaffran, Stéphane; Robrini, Nicolas E.; Bertrand, Nicolas. 2014. "Retinoids and Cardiac Development." J. Dev. Biol. 2, no. 1: 50-71.

J. Dev. Biol. EISSN 2221-3759 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert