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J. Dev. Biol. 2014, 2(2), 72-83; doi:10.3390/jdb2020072
Article

Retinoic Acid, under Cerebrospinal Fluid Control, Induces Neurogenesis during Early Brain Development

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 and 1,2,*
1 Departamento de Anatomía y Radiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Valladolid, C/ Ramón y Cajal 7, 47005 Valladolid, Spain 2 Laboratorio de Desarrollo y Teratología del Sistema Nervioso, Instituto de Neurociencias de Castilla y León (INCYL), Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 January 2014 / Revised: 6 March 2014 / Accepted: 18 March 2014 / Published: 8 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retinoids in Development)
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Abstract

One of the more intriguing subjects in neuroscience is how a precursor or stem cell is induced to differentiate into a neuron. Neurogenesis begins early in brain development and suddenly becomes a very intense process, which is related with the influence of Retinoic Acid. Here, using a biological test (F9-1.8 cells) in chick embryos, we show that “in vivo” embryonic cerebrospinal fluid regulates mesencephalic-rombencephalic Isthmic Retinoic Acid synthesis and this effect has a direct influence on mesencephalic neuroepithelial precursors, inducing a significant increase in neurogenesis. This effect is mediated by the Retinol Binding Protein present in the embryonic cerebrospinal fluid. The knowledge of embryonic neurogenetic stimulus could be useful in the control of adult brain neurogenesis.
Keywords: embryonic cerebrospinal fluid; retinoic acid; mesencephalic-rombencephalic isthmus; neuroepithelial precursors; neurogenesis embryonic cerebrospinal fluid; retinoic acid; mesencephalic-rombencephalic isthmus; neuroepithelial precursors; neurogenesis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Alonso, M.I.; Carnicero, E.; Carretero, R.; De la Mano, A.; Moro, J.A.; Lamus, F.; Martín, C.; Gato, A. Retinoic Acid, under Cerebrospinal Fluid Control, Induces Neurogenesis during Early Brain Development. J. Dev. Biol. 2014, 2, 72-83.

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