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Retinoic Acid Signaling during Early Spinal Cord Development
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J. Dev. Biol. 2015, 3(2), 25-56; doi:10.3390/jdb3020025

Retinoic Acid and the Development of the Endoderm

1
Department of Paediatrics, Western University, 800 Commissioners Road East, London, ON N6A 5W9, Canada
2
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Western University, London, ON N6A 5C1, Canada
3
Department of Biology, Western University, London, ON N6A 5B7, Canada
4
Children's Health Research Institute, 800 Commissioners Road East, London, ON N6C 2V5, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andy Wessels
Received: 7 March 2015 / Revised: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 2 April 2015 / Published: 20 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retinoids in Development)
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Abstract

Retinoic acid (RA) is an important signaling molecule in the development of the endoderm and an important molecule in protocols used to generate endodermal cell types from stem cells. In this review, we describe the RA signaling pathway and its role in the patterning and specification of the extra embryonic endoderm and different endodermal organs. The formation of endoderm is an ancient evolutionary feature and RA signaling appears to have coevolved with the vertebrate lineage. Towards that end, we describe how RA participates in many regulatory networks required for the formation of extraembryonic structures as well as the organs of the embryo proper. View Full-Text
Keywords: retinoic acid; retinoids; endoderm; embryology; development; anterior-posterior axis; thyroid; lung; pancreas; extraembryonic endoderm retinoic acid; retinoids; endoderm; embryology; development; anterior-posterior axis; thyroid; lung; pancreas; extraembryonic endoderm
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kelly, G.M.; Drysdale, T.A. Retinoic Acid and the Development of the Endoderm. J. Dev. Biol. 2015, 3, 25-56.

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J. Dev. Biol. EISSN 2221-3759 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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