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Special Issue "Phospholipids: Molecular Sciences"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Anthony P. Davis (Website)

Professor of Supramolecular Chemistry, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's Close, Bristol BS8 1TS, UK
Interests: supramolecular chemistry; carbohydrate recognition; anion recognition and transport; crystal engineering; computer-aided molecular design

Keywords

  • Phospholipids

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Mouse Plasminogen Has Oxidized Phosphatidylcholine Adducts That Are Not Metabolized by Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 under Basal Conditions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(12), 5339-5347; doi:10.3390/ijms11125339
Received: 12 November 2010 / Revised: 15 December 2010 / Accepted: 17 December 2010 / Published: 22 December 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (263 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We previously showed that plasminogen (Plg) isolated from the plasma of normal human subjects contains 1–2 moles of oxidized phosphatidylcholine (oxPtdPC) adducts/mole of protein. Moreover, we suggested that these species are generated at the hepatic site and speculated that they may play [...] Read more.
We previously showed that plasminogen (Plg) isolated from the plasma of normal human subjects contains 1–2 moles of oxidized phosphatidylcholine (oxPtdPC) adducts/mole of protein. Moreover, we suggested that these species are generated at the hepatic site and speculated that they may play a role in the reported cardiovascular pathogenicity of Plg. We aimed to determine whether mouse Plg also harbors linked oxPtdPCs and whether these molecules are metabolized by lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2/PAF acetylhydrolase (Lp-PLA2/PAF-AH), an enzyme specific for hydrolysis of oxPtdPCs. We determined the total concentration of Plg in plasma samples from control (WT) and Lp-PLA2-deficient (KO) mice, we isolated Plg, and assessed its content of oxPtdPCs by immunoblot analyses. We also evaluated whether human recombinant Lp-PLA2 metabolized Plg-linked oxPtdPCs in vivo and in vitro. WT and KO mice expressed comparable levels (14.4–15.8 mg/dL) of plasma Plg, as determined by ELISA. We observed no differences in the content of oxPtdPC in Plg isolated from the two mouse strains and in parallel no changes in oxPtdPC content in mouse Plg following incubation with pure recombinant Lp-PLA2. Plg from mouse plasma contains oxPtdPC adducts that are not affected by the action of Lp-PLA2, suggesting that linkage to Plg protects oxPtdPCs from metabolism during their transport in the plasma. This modification may have important physio-pathological implications related to the function of Plg, oxPtdPCs, or both. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids: Molecular Sciences)
Open AccessArticle Lysophosphatidic Acid Level and the Incidence of Silent Brain Infarction in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(10), 3988-3998; doi:10.3390/ijms11103988
Received: 12 August 2010 / Revised: 25 September 2010 / Accepted: 12 October 2010 / Published: 19 October 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which is proposed to play an important role in normal physiological situations such as wound healing, vascular tone, vascular integrity and reproduction, may be involved in the etiology of some diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer, obesity or myocardial infarction. Abnormal findings, including silent brain infarction (SBI), are frequently observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). However, whether there is a relationship between LPA level and the prevalence of SBI has not been extensively studied. In the present study, the association between them was investigated. 235 patients with NVAF, 116 cases of SBI without NVAF and 120 cases of healthy volunteers (control group), who did not receive any antithrombotic therapy, were enrolled in this study. Plasma LPA levels in the NVAF with SBI group were significantly higher than that in the control group (p < 0.01), NVAF without SBI group (p < 0.01) and SBI without NVAF group (p < 0.01). The LPA levels are lower in the control group than in the NVAF without SBI and SBI without NVAF groups (p < 0.01), however, the latter two groups did not significantly differ from each other for LPA levels (p > 0.05) There were significant differences in the positive rate of platelet activation between each of the groups (p < 0.01). The positive rate of platelet activation was significantly higher in the NVAF with SBI group. We suggest that LPA might be a novel marker for estimation of the status of platelet activation and the risk factor for SBI onset in NVAF patients. We expected that plasma LPA levels could predict the occurrence of SBI in NVAF patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids: Molecular Sciences)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Exercise on the Skeletal Muscle Phospholipidome of Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(10), 3954-3964; doi:10.3390/ijms11103954
Received: 7 September 2010 / Revised: 8 October 2010 / Accepted: 12 October 2010 / Published: 15 October 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of endurance training on skeletal muscle phospholipid molecular species from high-fat fed rats. Twelve female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet (78.1% energy). The rats were randomly divided into two groups, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of endurance training on skeletal muscle phospholipid molecular species from high-fat fed rats. Twelve female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet (78.1% energy). The rats were randomly divided into two groups, a sedentary control group and a trained group (125 min of treadmill running at 8 m/min, 4 days/wk for 4 weeks). Forty-eight hours after their last training bout phospholipids were extracted from the red and white vastus lateralis and analyzed by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. Exercise training was associated with significant alterations in the relative abundance of a number of phospholipid molecular species. These changes were more prominent in red vastus lateralis than white vastus lateralis. The largest observed change was an increase of ~30% in the abundance of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl phosphatidylcholine ions in oxidative fibers. Reductions in the relative abundance of a number of phospholipids containing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were also observed. These data suggest a possible reduction in phospholipid remodeling in the trained animals. This results in a decrease in the phospholipid n-3 to n-6 ratio that may in turn influence endurance capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids: Molecular Sciences)

Review

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Open AccessReview Nutritional Deficiencies and Phospholipid Metabolism
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(4), 2408-2433; doi:10.3390/ijms12042408
Received: 16 December 2010 / Revised: 11 February 2011 / Accepted: 14 March 2011 / Published: 6 April 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phospholipids are important components of the cell membranes of all living species. They contribute to the physicochemical properties of the membrane and thus influence the conformation and function of membrane-bound proteins, such as receptors, ion channels, and transporters and also influence cell [...] Read more.
Phospholipids are important components of the cell membranes of all living species. They contribute to the physicochemical properties of the membrane and thus influence the conformation and function of membrane-bound proteins, such as receptors, ion channels, and transporters and also influence cell function by serving as precursors for prostaglandins and other signaling molecules and modulating gene expression through the transcription activation. The components of the diet are determinant for cell functionality. In this review, the effects of macro and micronutrients deficiency on the quality, quantity and metabolism of different phospholipids and their distribution in cells of different organs is presented. Alterations in the amount of both saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins A, E and folate, and other micronutrients, such as zinc and magnesium, are discussed. In all cases we observe alterations in the pattern of phospholipids, the more affected ones being phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin. The deficiency of certain nutrients, such as essential fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and some metals may contribute to a variety of diseases that can be irreversible even after replacement with normal amount of the nutrients. Usually, the sequelae are more important when the deficiency is present at an early age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids: Molecular Sciences)
Open AccessReview Integrated Lipidomics in the Secreted Phospholipase A2 Biology
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(3), 1474-1495; doi:10.3390/ijms12031474
Received: 30 January 2011 / Revised: 18 February 2011 / Accepted: 24 February 2011 / Published: 25 February 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (764 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mammalian genomes encode genes for more than 30 phospholipase A2s (PLA2s) or related enzymes, which are subdivided into several subgroups based on their structures, catalytic mechanisms, localizations and evolutionary relationships. More than one third of the PLA2 [...] Read more.
Mammalian genomes encode genes for more than 30 phospholipase A2s (PLA2s) or related enzymes, which are subdivided into several subgroups based on their structures, catalytic mechanisms, localizations and evolutionary relationships. More than one third of the PLA2 enzymes belong to the secreted PLA2 (sPLA2) family, which consists of low-molecular-weight, Ca2+-requiring extracellular enzymes, with a His-Asp catalytic dyad. Individual sPLA2 isoforms exhibit unique tissue and cellular localizations and enzymatic properties, suggesting their distinct pathophysiological roles. Recent studies using transgenic and knockout mice for several sPLA2 isoforms, in combination with lipidomics approaches, have revealed their distinct contributions to various biological events. Herein, we will describe several examples of sPLA2-mediated phospholipid metabolism in vivo, as revealed by integrated analysis of sPLA2 transgenic/knockout mice and lipid mass spectrometry. Knowledge obtained from this approach greatly contributes to expanding our understanding of the sPLA2 biology and pathophysiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids: Molecular Sciences)
Open AccessReview Phospholipases A1
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 588-612; doi:10.3390/ijms12010588
Received: 15 December 2010 / Revised: 7 January 2011 / Accepted: 11 January 2011 / Published: 18 January 2011
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (421 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phospholipase A1 (PLA1) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes phospholipids and produces 2-acyl-lysophospholipids and fatty acids. This lipolytic activity is conserved in a wide range of organisms but is carried out by a diverse set of PLA1 enzymes. Where [...] Read more.
Phospholipase A1 (PLA1) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes phospholipids and produces 2-acyl-lysophospholipids and fatty acids. This lipolytic activity is conserved in a wide range of organisms but is carried out by a diverse set of PLA1 enzymes. Where their function is known, PLA1s have been shown to act as digestive enzymes, possess central roles in membrane maintenance and remodeling, or regulate important cellular mechanisms by the production of various lysophospholipid mediators, such as lysophosphatidylserine and lysophosphatidic acid, which in turn have multiple biological functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids: Molecular Sciences)
Open AccessReview Lipid Based Therapy for Ulcerative Colitis—Modulation of Intestinal Mucus Membrane Phospholipids as a Tool to Influence Inflammation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(10), 4149-4164; doi:10.3390/ijms11104149
Received: 6 September 2010 / Revised: 15 October 2010 / Accepted: 16 October 2010 / Published: 25 October 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (485 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is the result of an inappropriate colonic inflammatory response triggered by environmental and genetic factors. We have recently shown that mucus from UC patients has a decreased phosphatidylcholine (PC) content, while clinical trials revealed that therapeutic addition of PC [...] Read more.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is the result of an inappropriate colonic inflammatory response triggered by environmental and genetic factors. We have recently shown that mucus from UC patients has a decreased phosphatidylcholine (PC) content, while clinical trials revealed that therapeutic addition of PC to the colonic mucus alleviated the inflammatory activity. The mechanisms behind this are still unclear. We hypothesized that PC has at least two possible functions in the intestine: First, it establishes the surface hydrophobicity of the mucus and therefore protects the underlying tissue against intraluminal aggressors; recent experiments on surgical specimens revealed reduced surface tension and hydrophobicity in UC patients. Second, mucus phospholipids might also be integrated into the plasma membranes of enterocytes and thereby influence the signaling state of the mucosa. PC has been shown to inhibit TNF-α induced pro-inflammatory responses including: (1) assembly of plasma membrane actin; (2) activation of MAP kinases ERK and p38; and (3) activation of NF-κB and synthesis of pro-inflammatory gene products. Other phospholipids like phosphatidylethanolamine or sphingomyelin  had no effect. PC also inhibited latex bead phagosome actin assembly, killing of M. tuberculosis in macrophages, and sphingosine-1-phosphate induced actin assembly in macrophages. Collectively, these results provide a molecular foundation that shows PC, firstly, as an anti-inflammatory, and secondly, as a surface hydrophobicity increasing compound with promising therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids: Molecular Sciences)

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