Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(10), 4149-4164; doi:10.3390/ijms11104149
Review

Lipid Based Therapy for Ulcerative Colitis—Modulation of Intestinal Mucus Membrane Phospholipids as a Tool to Influence Inflammation

Received: 6 September 2010; in revised form: 15 October 2010 / Accepted: 16 October 2010 / Published: 25 October 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids: Molecular Sciences)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is the result of an inappropriate colonic inflammatory response triggered by environmental and genetic factors. We have recently shown that mucus from UC patients has a decreased phosphatidylcholine (PC) content, while clinical trials revealed that therapeutic addition of PC to the colonic mucus alleviated the inflammatory activity. The mechanisms behind this are still unclear. We hypothesized that PC has at least two possible functions in the intestine: First, it establishes the surface hydrophobicity of the mucus and therefore protects the underlying tissue against intraluminal aggressors; recent experiments on surgical specimens revealed reduced surface tension and hydrophobicity in UC patients. Second, mucus phospholipids might also be integrated into the plasma membranes of enterocytes and thereby influence the signaling state of the mucosa. PC has been shown to inhibit TNF-α induced pro-inflammatory responses including: (1) assembly of plasma membrane actin; (2) activation of MAP kinases ERK and p38; and (3) activation of NF-κB and synthesis of pro-inflammatory gene products. Other phospholipids like phosphatidylethanolamine or sphingomyelin  had no effect. PC also inhibited latex bead phagosome actin assembly, killing of M. tuberculosis in macrophages, and sphingosine-1-phosphate induced actin assembly in macrophages. Collectively, these results provide a molecular foundation that shows PC, firstly, as an anti-inflammatory, and secondly, as a surface hydrophobicity increasing compound with promising therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.
Keywords: phospholipids; phosphatidylcholine; mucosal barrier; ulcerative colitis; phospholipase A2
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schneider, H.; Braun, A.; Füllekrug, J.; Stremmel, W.; Ehehalt, R. Lipid Based Therapy for Ulcerative Colitis—Modulation of Intestinal Mucus Membrane Phospholipids as a Tool to Influence Inflammation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 4149-4164.

AMA Style

Schneider H, Braun A, Füllekrug J, Stremmel W, Ehehalt R. Lipid Based Therapy for Ulcerative Colitis—Modulation of Intestinal Mucus Membrane Phospholipids as a Tool to Influence Inflammation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2010; 11(10):4149-4164.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schneider, Hannah; Braun, Annika; Füllekrug, Joachim; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Ehehalt, Robert. 2010. "Lipid Based Therapy for Ulcerative Colitis—Modulation of Intestinal Mucus Membrane Phospholipids as a Tool to Influence Inflammation." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11, no. 10: 4149-4164.

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