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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(4), 2408-2433; doi:10.3390/ijms12042408
Review

Nutritional Deficiencies and Phospholipid Metabolism

* , *  and
Received: 16 December 2010; in revised form: 11 February 2011 / Accepted: 14 March 2011 / Published: 6 April 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids: Molecular Sciences)
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Abstract: Phospholipids are important components of the cell membranes of all living species. They contribute to the physicochemical properties of the membrane and thus influence the conformation and function of membrane-bound proteins, such as receptors, ion channels, and transporters and also influence cell function by serving as precursors for prostaglandins and other signaling molecules and modulating gene expression through the transcription activation. The components of the diet are determinant for cell functionality. In this review, the effects of macro and micronutrients deficiency on the quality, quantity and metabolism of different phospholipids and their distribution in cells of different organs is presented. Alterations in the amount of both saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins A, E and folate, and other micronutrients, such as zinc and magnesium, are discussed. In all cases we observe alterations in the pattern of phospholipids, the more affected ones being phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin. The deficiency of certain nutrients, such as essential fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and some metals may contribute to a variety of diseases that can be irreversible even after replacement with normal amount of the nutrients. Usually, the sequelae are more important when the deficiency is present at an early age.
Keywords: phospholipids; unsaturated fatty acids; vitamins; oligoelements phospholipids; unsaturated fatty acids; vitamins; oligoelements
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gimenez, M.S.; Oliveros, L.B.; Gomez, N.N. Nutritional Deficiencies and Phospholipid Metabolism. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 2408-2433.

AMA Style

Gimenez MS, Oliveros LB, Gomez NN. Nutritional Deficiencies and Phospholipid Metabolism. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(4):2408-2433.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gimenez, María S.; Oliveros, Liliana B.; Gomez, Nidia N. 2011. "Nutritional Deficiencies and Phospholipid Metabolism." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 4: 2408-2433.



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