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The Improvement of Hypertension by Probiotics: Effects on Cholesterol, Diabetes, Renin, and Phytoestrogens
School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 June 2009; in revised form: 30 July 2009 / Accepted: 10 August 2009 / Published: 27 August 2009
Abstract: Probiotics are live organisms that are primarily used to improve gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, constipation, lactose intolerance, and to inhibit the excessive proliferation of pathogenic intestinal bacteria. However, recent studies have suggested that probiotics could have beneficial effects beyond gastrointestinal health, as they were found to improve certain metabolic disorders such as hypertension. Hypertension is caused by various factors and the predominant causes include an increase in cholesterol levels, incidence of diabetes, inconsistent modulation of renin and imbalanced sexual hormones. This review discusses the antihypertensive roles of probiotics via the improvement and/or treatment of lipid profiles, modulation of insulin resistance and sensitivity, the modulation of renin levels and also the conversion of bioactive phytoestrogens as an alternative replacement of sexual hormones such as estrogen and progesterone.
Keywords: probiotic; antihypertension; cholesterol; diabetes; renin; phytoestrogen
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MDPI and ACS Style
Lye, H.-S.; Kuan, C.-Y.; Ewe, J.-A.; Fung, W.-Y.; Liong, M.-T. The Improvement of Hypertension by Probiotics: Effects on Cholesterol, Diabetes, Renin, and Phytoestrogens. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 3755-3775.
Lye H-S, Kuan C-Y, Ewe J-A, Fung W-Y, Liong M-T. The Improvement of Hypertension by Probiotics: Effects on Cholesterol, Diabetes, Renin, and Phytoestrogens. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(9):3755-3775.
Lye, Huey-Shi; Kuan, Chiu-Yin; Ewe, Joo-Ann; Fung, Wai-Yee; Liong, Min-Tze. 2009. "The Improvement of Hypertension by Probiotics: Effects on Cholesterol, Diabetes, Renin, and Phytoestrogens." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, no. 9: 3755-3775.