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Special Issue "The Beneficial Effects of Plant Oil on Human Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Gérard Lizard

Universite de Bourgogne Franche-Comté / Inserm, Dijon, France
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The use of several oils such as argan and olive oils for human health has attracted a great deal of interest. Argan oil has been used in traditional medicine, mainly in Morocco, as a natural remedy for several centuries. Olive oil is a major component of the mediterranean diet, and its benefits on the prevention on numerous diseases is well admitted. The rich composition of these oils in tocopherols, phytosterols, and unsaturated fatty acid makes them very interesting oils with respect to their actions on the risk factors of numerous diseases, mainly cardiovascular diseases, associated with hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension. Argan oil is also traditionally used for the treatment of skin infections and in cosmetics. Beside these two important oils associated with the mediterranean diet, some other oils deriving from different plants are of interest to prevent or treat major human diseases. The objective of this Special Issue is to present different types of papers (research papers and reviews) gathering different topics, in order to provide a wide overview on the beneficial effects of plant oils on human health. The different topics include: oil production, oil composition, cosmetic, aged related diseases (cancer, metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, eye diseases, etc.), and nutrition. The cytoprotective effects of the major oil compounds on oxidation, inflammation, and cell death will be also considered.

Dr Gérard Lizard
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Tunisian Milk Thistle: An Investigation of the Chemical Composition and the Characterization of Its Cold-Pressed Seed Oils
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2582; doi:10.3390/ijms18122582
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 2 December 2017
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Abstract
In this study, milk thistle seeds growing in different areas in Tunisia were cold pressed and the extracted oils were examined for their chemical and antioxidant properties. The major fatty acids were linoleic acid (C18:2) (57.0%, 60.0%, and 60.3% for the milk thistle
[...] Read more.
In this study, milk thistle seeds growing in different areas in Tunisia were cold pressed and the extracted oils were examined for their chemical and antioxidant properties. The major fatty acids were linoleic acid (C18:2) (57.0%, 60.0%, and 60.3% for the milk thistle seed oils native to Bizerte, Zaghouan and Sousse, respectively) and oleic acid (C18:1) (15.5%, 21.5%, and 22.4% for the milk thistle seed oils originating from Bizerte, Zaghouan and Sousse, respectively). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the richness of the milk thistle seed oils (MTSO) in α-tocopherol. The highest content was recorded for that of the region of Zaghouan (286.22 mg/kg). The total phenolic contents (TPC) of Zaghouan, Bizerte, and Sousse were 1.59, 8.12, and 4.73 Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE) mg/g, respectively. Three phenolic acids were also identified (vanillic, p-coumaric, and silybine), with a predominance of the vanillic acid. The highest value was recorded for the Zaghouan milk thistle seed oil (83 mg/100 g). Differences in outcomes between regions may be due to climatic differences in areas. Zaghouan’s cold-pressed milk thistle seed oil had a better quality than those of Bizerte and Sousse, and can be considered as a valuable source for new multi-purpose products or by-products for industrial, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Beneficial Effects of Plant Oil on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Argan Oil as an Effective Nutri-Therapeutic Agent in Metabolic Syndrome: A Preclinical Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2492; doi:10.3390/ijms18112492
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 18 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
The present study aims at examining the effects of argan oil on the three main cardiovascular risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome (hypertension, insulin resistance and obesity) and on one of its main complications, neuropathic pain. Male Sprague-Dawley rats had free access to
[...] Read more.
The present study aims at examining the effects of argan oil on the three main cardiovascular risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome (hypertension, insulin resistance and obesity) and on one of its main complications, neuropathic pain. Male Sprague-Dawley rats had free access to a drinking solution containing 10% d-glucose or tap water for 12 weeks. The effect of argan oil was compared to that of corn oil given daily by gavage during 12 weeks in glucose-fed rats. Glucose-fed rats showed increases in systolic blood pressure, epididymal fat, plasma levels of triglycerides, leptin, glucose and insulin, insulin resistance, tactile and cold allodynia in association with a rise in superoxide anion production and NADPH oxidase activity in the thoracic aorta, epididymal fat and gastrocnemius muscle. Glucose-fed rats also showed rises in B1 receptor protein expression in aorta and gastrocnemius muscle. Argan oil prevented or significantly reduced all those anomalies with an induction in plasma adiponectin levels. In contrast, the same treatment with corn oil had a positive impact only on triglycerides, leptin, adiponectin and insulin resistance. These data are the first to suggest that argan oil is an effective nutri-therapeutic agent to prevent the cardiovascular risk factors and complications associated with metabolic syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Beneficial Effects of Plant Oil on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Red Palm Oil on Myocardial Antioxidant Enzymes, Nitric Oxide Synthase and Heart Function in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2476; doi:10.3390/ijms18112476
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of antioxidants rich red palm oil (RPO) supplementation on cardiac oxidative stress known as crucial factor deteriorating heart function in hypertension. 3-month-old, male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY)
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of antioxidants rich red palm oil (RPO) supplementation on cardiac oxidative stress known as crucial factor deteriorating heart function in hypertension. 3-month-old, male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were fed standard rat chow without or with RPO (0.2 mL/day/5 weeks). General characteristic of rats were registered. Left ventricular tissue (LV) was used to determine expression of superoxide dismutases (SOD1, SOD2) and glutathione peroxidases (Gpx) as well as activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Functional parameters of the heart were examined during basal conditions and at the early-phase of post-ischemic reperfusion using Langendorff-perfused system. RPO intake significantly reduced elevated blood pressure and total NOS activity as well as increased lowered expression of mitochondrial SOD2 in SHR hearts during basal condition. Moreover, RPO supplementation resulted in suppression of elevated heart rate, increase of reduced coronary flow and enhancement of systolic and diastolic heart function at the early-phase of post-ischemic reperfusion. It is concluded that SHR benefit from RPO intake due to decrease of blood pressure, amelioration of oxidative stress and protection of heart function that was deteriorated by post-ischemic reperfusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Beneficial Effects of Plant Oil on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Argan Oil-Mediated Attenuation of Organelle Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress and Cell Death Induced by 7-Ketocholesterol in Murine Oligodendrocytes 158N
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2220; doi:10.3390/ijms18102220
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (949 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Argan oil is widely used in Morocco in traditional medicine. Its ability to treat cardiovascular diseases is well-established. However, nothing is known about its effects on neurodegenerative diseases, which are often associated with increased oxidative stress leading to lipid peroxidation and the formation
[...] Read more.
Argan oil is widely used in Morocco in traditional medicine. Its ability to treat cardiovascular diseases is well-established. However, nothing is known about its effects on neurodegenerative diseases, which are often associated with increased oxidative stress leading to lipid peroxidation and the formation of 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) resulting from cholesterol auto-oxidation. As 7KC induces oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death, it is important to identify compounds able to impair its harmful effects. These compounds may be either natural or synthetic molecules or mixtures of molecules such as oils. In this context: (i) the lipid profiles of dietary argan oils from Berkane and Agadir (Morocco) in fatty acids, phytosterols, tocopherols and polyphenols were determined by different chromatographic techniques; and (ii) their anti-oxidant and cytoprotective effects in 158N murine oligodendrocytes cultured with 7KC (25–50 µM; 24 h) without and with argan oil (0.1% v/v) or α-tocopherol (400 µM, positive control) were evaluated with complementary techniques of cellular and molecular biology. Among the unsaturated fatty acids present in argan oils, oleate (C18:1 n-9) and linoleate (C18:1 n-6) were the most abundant; the highest quantities of saturated fatty acids were palmitate (C16:0) and stearate (C18:0). Several phytosterols were found, mainly schottenol and spinasterol (specific to argan oil), cycloartenol, β-amyrin and citrostadienol. α- and γ-tocopherols were also present. Tyrosol and protocatechic acid were the only polyphenols detected. Argan and extra virgin olive oils have many compounds in common, principally oleate and linoleate, and tocopherols. Kit Radicaux Libres (KRL) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) tests showed that argan and extra virgin olive oils have anti-oxidant properties. Argan oils were able to attenuate the cytotoxic effects of 7KC on 158N cells: loss of cell adhesion, cell growth inhibition, increased plasma membrane permeability, mitochondrial, peroxisomal and lysosomal dysfunction, and the induction of oxiapoptophagy (OXIdation + APOPTOsis + autoPHAGY). Altogether, our data obtained in 158N oligodendrocytes provide evidence that argan oil is able to counteract the toxic effects of 7KC on nerve cells, thus suggesting that some of its compounds could prevent or mitigate neurodegenerative diseases to the extent that they are able to cross the blood‐brain barrier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Beneficial Effects of Plant Oil on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effects of Red Ginseng Oil against Aβ25–35-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis and Inflammation in PC12 Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2218; doi:10.3390/ijms18102218
Received: 10 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
One of pathological characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), aggregation and deposition of β amyloid (Aβ), has been accepted as a potent activator of neuronal cell death. Red ginseng is well-known for various pharmacological activities, but most studies have been focused on red ginseng
[...] Read more.
One of pathological characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), aggregation and deposition of β amyloid (Aβ), has been accepted as a potent activator of neuronal cell death. Red ginseng is well-known for various pharmacological activities, but most studies have been focused on red ginseng water extract (RGW), which has resulted in the conception of the present study of red ginseng oil (RGO) against Aβ25–35-induced neurotoxicity. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction by Aβ were verified and the underlying mechanism by which RGO inhibited neuronal cell death, mitochondria dysfunction and NF-κB pathway related protein markers were evaluated. RGO attenuated Aβ25–35-induced apoptosis, not only by inhibiting calcium influx, but also by reducing mitochondrial membrane potential loss. RGO significantly decreased Bax, whereas increased Bcl-2 and inactivated of caspase-3 and -9 and PARP-1 stimulated by Aβ25–35. Anti-neuroinflammatory effect of RGO was demonstrated by downregulating c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, resulting in inhibiting of the NF-κB pathway and thereby suppressing the expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The present study revealed that RGO is a potential natural resource of the functional foods industry as well as a promising candidate of multi-target neuronal protective agent for the prevention of AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Beneficial Effects of Plant Oil on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effect of Argan and Olive Oils against LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Mice Livers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2181; doi:10.3390/ijms18102181
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
Sepsis causes severe dysregulation of organ functions, via the development of oxidative stress and inflammation. These pathophysiological mechanisms are mimicked in mice injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, protective properties of argan oil against LPS-induced oxidative stress and inflammation are explored in the
[...] Read more.
Sepsis causes severe dysregulation of organ functions, via the development of oxidative stress and inflammation. These pathophysiological mechanisms are mimicked in mice injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, protective properties of argan oil against LPS-induced oxidative stress and inflammation are explored in the murine model. Mice received standard chow, supplemented with argan oil (AO) or olive oil (OO) for 25 days, before septic shock was provoked with a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS, 16 hours prior to animal sacrifice. In addition to a rise in oxidative stress and inflammatory markers, injected LPS also caused hepatotoxicity, accompanied by hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and hyperuremia. These LPS-associated toxic effects were blunted by AO pretreatment, as corroborated by normal plasma parameters and cell stress markers (glutathione: GSH) and antioxidant enzymology (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD and glutathione peroxidase, GPx). Hematoxylin–eosin staining revealed that AO can protect against acute liver injury, maintaining a normal status, which is pointed out by absent or reduced LPS-induced hepatic damage markers (i.e., alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST)). Our work also indicated that AO displayed anti-inflammatory activity, due to down-regulations of genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and in up-regulations of the expression of anti-inflammatory genes encoding Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10). OO provided animals with similar, though less extensive, protective changes. Collectively our work adds compelling evidence to the protective mechanisms of AO against LPS-induced liver injury and hence therapeutic potentialities, in regard to the management of human sepsis. Activations of IL-4/Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (IL-4/PPARs) signaling and, under LPS, an anti-inflammatory IL-10/Liver X Receptor (IL-10/LXR) route, obviously indicated the high potency and plasticity of the anti-inflammatory properties of argan oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Beneficial Effects of Plant Oil on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of a Virgin Olive Oil versus Butter Plus Cholesterol-Enriched Diet on Testicular Enzymatic Activities in Adult Male Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1701; doi:10.3390/ijms18081701
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (829 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the present work was to improve our knowledge on the mechanisms underlying the beneficial or deleterious effects on testicular function of the so-called Mediterranean and Western diet by analyzing glutamyl aminopeptidase (GluAP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV
[...] Read more.
The aim of the present work was to improve our knowledge on the mechanisms underlying the beneficial or deleterious effects on testicular function of the so-called Mediterranean and Western diet by analyzing glutamyl aminopeptidase (GluAP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) activities in testis, as enzymes involved in testicular function. Male Wistar rats (6 months old) were fed for 24 weeks with three different diets: standard (S), an S diet supplemented with virgin-olive-oil (20%) (VOO), or a S diet enriched with butter (20%) plus cholesterol (0.1%) (Bch). At the end of the experimental period, plasma lipid profiled (total triglycerides, total cholesterol and cholesterol fractions (HDL, LDL and VDL)) were measured. Enzymatic activities were determined by fluorimetric methods in soluble (sol) and membrane-bound (mb) fractions of testicular tissue using arylamide derivatives as substrates. Results indicated an increase in plasmatic triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL in Bch. A significant increase of mb GluAP and GGT activities was also found in this diet in comparison with the other two diets. Furthermore, significant and positive correlations were established between these activities and plasma triglycerides and/or total cholesterol. These results support a role for testicular GluAP and GGT activities in the effects of saturated fat (Western diet) on testicular functions. In contrast, VOO increased sol DPP IV activity in comparison with the other two diets, which support a role for this activity in the effects of monounsaturated fat (Mediterranean diet) on testicular function. The present results strongly support the influence of fatty acids and cholesterol on testicular GluAP and GGT activities and also provide support that the reported beneficial influence of the Mediterranean diet in male fertility may be mediated in part by an increase of testicular sol DPP IV activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Beneficial Effects of Plant Oil on Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Essential Oils from Neotropical Piper Species and Their Biological Activities
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2571; doi:10.3390/ijms18122571
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
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Abstract
The Piper genus is the most representative of the Piperaceae reaching around 2000 species distributed in the pantropical region. In the Neotropics, its species are represented by herbs, shrubs, and lianas, which are used in traditional medicine to prepare teas and infusions. Its
[...] Read more.
The Piper genus is the most representative of the Piperaceae reaching around 2000 species distributed in the pantropical region. In the Neotropics, its species are represented by herbs, shrubs, and lianas, which are used in traditional medicine to prepare teas and infusions. Its essential oils (EOs) present high yield and are chemically constituted by complex mixtures or the predominance of main volatile constituents. The chemical composition of Piper EOs displays interspecific or intraspecific variations, according to the site of collection or seasonality. The main volatile compounds identified in Piper EOs are monoterpenes hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenoids, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenoids and large amounts of phenylpropanoids. In this review, we are reporting the biological potential of Piper EOs from the Neotropical region. There are many reports of Piper EOs as antimicrobial agents (fungi and bacteria), antiprotozoal (Leishmania spp., Plasmodium spp., and Trypanosoma spp.), acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity against different tumor cells lines (breast, leukemia, melanoma, gastric, among others). These studies can contribute to the rational and economic exploration of Piper species, once they have been identified as potent natural and alternative sources to treat human diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Beneficial Effects of Plant Oil on Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Ethnobotanic, Ethnopharmacologic Aspects and New Phytochemical Insights into Moroccan Argan Fruits
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2277; doi:10.3390/ijms18112277
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
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Abstract
This review summarizes available data on argan fruit botany, geographical distribution, traditional uses, environmental interest, socioeconomic role, phytochemistry, as well as health beneficial effects and examination of future prospects. In particular, ethnomedical uses of argan fruits are carried out throughout Morocco where it
[...] Read more.
This review summarizes available data on argan fruit botany, geographical distribution, traditional uses, environmental interest, socioeconomic role, phytochemistry, as well as health beneficial effects and examination of future prospects. In particular, ethnomedical uses of argan fruits are carried out throughout Morocco where it has been used against various diseases. Different classes of bioactive compounds have been characterized including essential oils, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, flavonoids and their newly reported acylglycosyl derivatives, monophenols, phenolic acids, cinnamic acids, saponins, triterpenes, phytosterols, ubiquinone, melatonin, new aminophenols along with vitamin E among other secondary metabolites. The latter have already shown a wide spectrum of in vitro, and ex vivo biologicalactivities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antihypertensive, anti-hypercholesterolemia, analgesic, antimicrobial, molluscicidal anti-nociceptive and anticancer potential. Argan flesh (pulp) contains a broad spectrum of polyphenolic compounds which may have utility for incorporation into nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals relevant to the food, cosmetic and health industries. Further research is recommended, especially on the health beneficial effects of the aminophenols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Beneficial Effects of Plant Oil on Human Health)
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Other

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Open AccessMeeting Report Benefits of Argan Oil on Human Health—May 4–6 2017, Errachidia, Morocco
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1383; doi:10.3390/ijms18071383
Received: 8 June 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2714 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The First International Symposium “The beneficial effects of argan oil on human health” is part of the dynamics of research and development programs on argan oil, which prompts Morocco to deploy various strategies, programs and plans for the protection and preservation
[...] Read more.
The First International Symposium “The beneficial effects of argan oil on human health” is part of the dynamics of research and development programs on argan oil, which prompts Morocco to deploy various strategies, programs and plans for the protection and preservation of the argan tree and of its know-how that is linked to the production of argan oil.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Beneficial Effects of Plant Oil on Human Health)
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